No. 6 : The Ukrainian Intellectual Heritage in a Global Context

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    A Word of Welcome From the Editor-in-Chief
    (2019) Morenets, Volodymyr
    Introductory article of Issue 6 Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal (2019) by the editor in chief
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    The Ukrainian "Galicia" Division: From Familiar to Unexplored Avenues of Research
    (2019) Shkandrij, Myroslav
    This article examines the main narratives that have dominated scholarly and political writings on the "Galicia" Division, the Waffen-SS 14th Grenadier Division that at the end of the Second World War was renamed the 1st Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army. Dominant narratives have focused on accusations of criminality, the hope that the formation would serve as the core of a national army at the war’s end, survival as a motivation for signing up, the experience of the soldiers after their surrender to the British, and the decision to transfer former soldiers to the UK and then to give them civilian status. Only the first of these narratives has been explored in depth as a result of the 1986 Deschènes Commission of Enquiry into War Crimes in Canada and the 1989 Hetherington-Chalmers Report in the UK. Far less attention has been devoted to other narratives, and some lines of enquiry suggested by the rich memoir and creative literature have hardly as yet been touched.
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    Pro-Ukrainian Students at the Kyiv Theological Academy From the 1890s to 1907
    (2019) Mohylnyi, Leonid
    The article analyzes the main preconditions for the formation of pro-Ukrainian views among students of the Kyiv Theological Academy and determines their percentages among the graduates from the 1890s to 1907. When in the late 1850s and the early 1860s the Ukrainian intelligentsia carried out semi-legal cultural and educational work within Ukrainophile communities (the hromadas), few students of the Academy took part in their activities, with only 4 participants being active members in the Kyiv Hromada. Later, when students from the 1890s to 1907 at the Kyiv Theological Academy joined the national movement, pro-Ukrainian activities became more popular with the clergy. According to statistical and biographical data gathered by the author, the percentage of nationally-minded graduates among Ukrainian-born students at the Academy varied from 5 to 38% depending on the year of graduation. They engaged in educational work in schools, popularized Ukrainian-language literature, collected ethnographic materials, studied the history of their native land, and translated religious literature. Moreover, 11 students left their mark in the history of the hromada movement. Such well-known public figures as Oleksandr Lototskyi, Volodymyr Durdukivskyi, Serhii Lypkivskyi, and Volodymyr Chekhivskyi, who all played a significant role in the events of the national revolution and the struggle for the independence of Ukraine, deserve special mention. Active participation of Academy graduates in Ukrainian public life challenges the general view of the Kyiv Theological Academy as a highly reactionary educational institution that trained cadres who served only the interests of the Russian Empire.
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    Handwritten Candidate Works of Kyiv Theological Academy Students as Sources for Studying the Academy’s Philosophical Heritage
    (2019) Tkachuk, Maryna
    This article is devoted to determining the source potential of the so-called dissertations collection of the Kyiv Theological Academy (Fund no. 304 of the Manuscript Institute of the V. I. Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine) in the study of its philosophical heritage. The author draws attention to the distinction of the hierarchy of educational and academic degrees in the Russian Empire (candidate’s, master’s, doctoral) the first, candidate’s degree, not being a research degree, from today’s hierarchy. The candidate’s degree at that time was awarded to graduates of higher education institutions on the basis of their academic achievements and a final (candidate) work, which should be considered analogous to a diploma (qualification) work, not to dissertations intended for public defense for a PhD degree. The article reveals that the collection of candidate papers from the Manuscript Institute contains important sources for researchers of biographies of the graduates of the Kyiv Theological Academy (including many prominent individuals), its history, and academic heritage. Out of more than two thousand manuscripts stored in the Funds no. 304, the author has for the first time selected and systematized an array of candidate works on philosophical subjects (more than 100 units), substantiating their important role in the research of the philosophical heritage of the Kyiv Theological Academy.
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    100 Years of Ukraine’s Cultural Diplomacy: The European Mission of the Ukrainian Republican Capella (1919–1921)
    (2019) Peresunko, Tina
    The article deals with the reputational, cultural, and informational resonance of the Ukrainian Republican Capella’s tours conducted by Oleksandr Koshyts in Western Europe from 1919 to 1921. The Ukrainian Republican Capella was created on the initiative of Symon Petliura, Head of the Directorate, Chief Otaman of the Army and Navy of the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR), to promote international recognition of Ukraine’s independence and the image of Ukrainian culture in the world. It gave 208 concerts in 74 of the most prestigious concert halls of 45 European cities. More than 600 reviews complimentary of Ukraine, Ukrainian state institutions, and Ukrainian culture appeared on the pages of the leading Western European press, and Ukrainian diplomatic missions abroad as well as the Capella’s office received hundreds of letters from leading European artists and politicians with enthusiastic reviews on its musical art and UNR aspirations for independence. The author provides little-known archival documents of the Ukrainian Republican Capella Foundation at the Central State Archives of the Supreme Bodies of the Government of Ukraine (CSASB of Ukraine), covering institutional, legal, financial and diplomatic support of the Capella abroad as part of Symon Petliura’s and the UNR Directory’s policy of cultural diplomacy, and suggests that foreign tours of the Capella should be considered as the first project of cultural diplomacy in the history of modern Ukraine.
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    From Old World Syndrome to History: Understanding the Past in Askold Melnyczuk’s Ambassador of the Dead
    (2019) Poliukhovych, Olga; Fielding, Heather
    Askold Melnyczuk’s novel Ambassador of the Dead (2001) narrates the process through which a second-generation, assimilated American learns to comprehend the Ukrainian historical experience of his family and their generation. This article argues that the novel is centrally concerned with Nick’s learning process: as he begins to better understand his parents’ generation, he transforms his own identity. As a child, Nick is unable to see Ada — his friend’s mother, who is haunted by traumatic experiences — as anything other than an unchanging, incomprehensible enigma: "Old World Syndrome". Eventually, Nick comes to follow the example of Anton, a displaced Ukrainian who narrates a story-within-the-novel that returns Ada’s experiences to their historical and cultural contexts, while using magical realism to place her Ukrainian experience on a historical scale. Through Anton’s example, Nick learns how to see both Ada and his parents as complex historical actors in world history. Understanding the past then enables him to see himself as Ukrainian and claim an identity that is both Ukrainian and American.
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    Hryhorii Poletyka’s Introduction of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Educational Methods in the Russian Empire
    (2019) Melnik, Anastasia; Tairova-Yakovleva, Tatiana
    This article is based on archival sources and examines the role of Hryhorii Poletyka in the creation of the Naval Corps in St. Petersburg, the highest marine educational institution in Russia. The authors consider his role in the development of the teaching system of the Naval Cadet Corps and the way in which he introduced methods of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, including the study of languages, the establishment of a library, an own publishing house and the like. This study shows the importance of Ukrainian educational culture and its impact on the development of the Russian Empire.
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    The Logic of Imperial Rule
    (2019) Shcherbak, Vitalii
    The process of the liquidation of the Hetmanate lasted for decades because of its scale and the constant need of Russia in the Cossack Army. Empress Elizabeth’s regime continued the centralizing policies introduced by Tsar Peter I. In anticipation of the possible consequences of this centralization, in the early 1860s Hetman Kyrylo Rozumovskyi tried to strengthen local governance by reforming his administrative system and judiciary, outlining the justification of his measures in an appeal to Empress Catherine II, entitled "Petition of the Little Russian Nobility and Officers, Together with the Hetman Concerning the Restoration of Various Old Rights of Little Russia." At the same time, Catherine II’s State Secretary, Grigorii Teplov expressed opposite views to the positions expounded in the "Petition", in his so-called "Notes on Violations in Little Russia". The main theses of Teplov’s memorandum were used by the Empress in secret guidelines issued to Petr Rumiantsev in his position as the President of the Second Little Russian Collegium. The reasoning of the above-mentioned documents formed the basis for Rumiantsev for the liquidation of the Ukrainian state.
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    Art Nouveau Ukrainian Architecture in a Global Context
    (2019) Romaniuk, Nelia
    The article is dedicated to Ukrainian Art Nouveau architecture, which became a unique phenomenon in the development of late nineteenth and early twentieth-century architecture. Along with the reality that architecture in Ukraine evolved as a component of the European artistic movement, a distinctive architectural style was formed, based on the development of the traditions of folk architecture and ornamentation. This style produced much innovation in the shaping, decor, and ornamentation of buildings. Significant contributions to the development of architectural modernism in Ukraine were made by Opanas Slastion, Vasyl Krychevskyi, Yevhen Serdiuk, Oleksandr Verbytskyi, Serhii Tymoshenko, Oleksandr Lushpynskyi, Ivan Levynskyi, Dmytro Diachenko, and others. Ukrainian Art Nouveau architecture was represented by five main architectural styles: modernist, folkloric, rationalist, neo-baroque, and Vienna Secession. Due to an attainment of the possibilities embodied in the constructions, developed techniques, and in the design of interior space and external features — such as walls, roofs, doors and windows, columns and balustrades — this style formed its own expressive system, which included a significant number of socially significant types of buildings (dwellings, schools, hospitals, warehouses, government buildings, places of worship). The styles of Ukrainian architectural modernism have not exhausted their potential and may yet have a continuation in contemporary architecture and that of the future.
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    Oleksandr Lototskyi and Ukrainian Autocephaly
    (2019) Zakharchenko, Petro; Matseliukh, Ivanna
    This article analyses the ideas and works of Oleksandr Lototskyi in connection with the autocephaly of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Lototskyi was a prominent scholar and politician during the Ukrainian revolution of 1917–1919. The chronology of Lototskyi’s beliefs as they developed, ranging from the support of the autonomy of the Church to the idea of autocephaly is reviewed in detail against the background of historical events. Lototskyi’s representations on behalf of the state at the All-Ukrainian Orthodox Church Sobor in November 1918 in support of Church independence showcased his convictions. The idea was incorporated by the Directory of the UNR into the Law "On the Highest Church Government of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church". The article shows that the paradigm of autocephaly, as envisioned by Lototskyi and exemplified through his actions whilst Minister of Confessions, became the cornerstone of modern Ukrainian philosophy in favor of religious independence.
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    The Reconstruction of Christian Theodicy in Taras Shevchenko’s Poetry
    (2019) Bihun, Olha
    This article focuses on the role of Christian theodicy in Taras Shevchenko’s works. With a biography marked by trauma and suffering, it is no wonder that Shevchenko orients his poetic worldview in search of understanding the nature of evil and human suffering. Operating through a Christological model, Shevchenko arrives at a poetics based on theodicy, as a means of understanding suffering in the world. He analyses the problem of evil associated with the phenomenology of suffering within the framework of religious ethics. The works of the early period emphasize "truth and revenge", retribution, and physical punishment over the "malicious" in the spirit of Old Testament dogma. The period of Shevchenko’s exile and subsequent works is characterized by changes in moods. The theodicy of Shevchenko’s works reveals the signs of Christodicy. Shevchenko’s concept of "suffering" is theologically based, as he believes that suffering is the key to conversion to faith.
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    The Poetry of Bohdan-Ihor Antonych and Zuzanna Ginczanka in the Context of European Modernism
    (2019) Semeryn, Khrystyna
    This article compares the poetry of two prominent modern writers: Polish-Jewish poetess Zuzanna Ginczanka (Sara Ginzburg, 1917–1945), and Ukrainian Lemko poet Bohdan-Ihor Antonych (1909–1937). They are believed (by Yaroslav Polishchuk et al.) to have certain poetic, stylistic, thematic, and literary similarities. The main discourses of their poetic imaginum mundi are studied with the use of a simple formula that includes five components. Tracing the interplay of nature, childhood, religion, and civilization in the development of an image of a holistic personality in their poetry, I analyze their common and differing ideas, images, motifs, and themes. The article also outlines the underlying similarities of both poets, i. e., their otherness, and their references to childhood as a certain place in their poetry.
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    Memory Set in Stone: Another Look at the Berezan Runic Inscription
    (2019) Kurzenkova, Alla
    The current research shows how the Viking runic monumental tradition was important in identifying landmarks of past activity honoring the dead and combining past and present, thus playing a crucial role in defining historical memory. The Berezan runestone may essentially be considered as a fragment of memory about trade activity, as it serves to activate memories of distant places and the importance of the Eastern way.
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    Historically Informed Performance in Today’s Ukrainian Culture
    (2019) Zhukova, Olena
    Reflection about contemporary music culture in Ukraine, its history, development and remarkable perspective and potential.
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    Ideological Zealots Fighting a Non-Existent Ukrainian Nationalist Enemy: A Reply to Tarik Amar’s Review of Red Famine
    (2019) Kuzio, Taras
    Tarik Cyril Amar’s review "Politics, Starvation, and Memory" of Anne Applebaum’s Red Famine. Stalin’s War on Ukraine, a book about the Holodomor, was published in Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History (vol. 20, no. 1, 2019). Applebaum’s Red Famine was published in Ukrainian by the Institute of History, National Academy of Sciences as Chervonyi holod. Viina Stalina proty Ukrainy. In December 2018, the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy awarded Applebaum an honorary doctorate at an evening to honor her long record of writing about Ukraine and her then new book Red Famine.
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    Siedina, Giovanna. Horace in the Kyiv Mohylanian Poetics (17th – First Half of the 18th Centuries). Poetic Theory, Metrics, Lyric Poetry. Firenze: Firenze University Press, 2017
    (2019) Brogi, Giovanna
    Review on Giovanna Siedina's book "Horace in the Kyiv Mohylanian Poetics (17th – First Half of the 18th Centuries). Poetic Theory, Metrics, Lyric Poetry. Firenze: Firenze University Press, 2017.
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    Cybriwsky, Roman Adrian. Along Ukraine’s River: A Social and Environmental History of the Dnipro. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2018
    (2019) Lozynskyi, Roman
    Review on Roman Cybriwsky's book "Along Ukraine’s River: A Social and Environmental History of the Dnipro" Budapest: Central European University Press, 2018.
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    Plokhy, Serhii. Chernobyl: The History of the Nuclear Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books, 2018
    (2019) Shuvalova, Mariia
    Review on Serhii Plokhy's book "Chernobyl: The History of the Nuclear Catastrophe". New York: Basic Books, 2018.
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    Rewakowicz, Maria G. Ukraine’s Quest for Identity: Embracing Cultural Hybridity in Literary Imagination, 1991–2011. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2018
    (2019) Maksymchuk, Olha
    Review on Maria G. Rewakowicz’s monograph Ukraine’s Quest for Identity: Embracing Cultural Hybridity in Literary Imagination, 1991–2011. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2018.
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    Hovorun, Cyril. Political Orthodoxies: The Unorthodoxies of the Church Coerced. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2018
    (2019) Chemodanova, Olena
    Review on Cyril Hovorun`s book "Political Orthodoxies: The Unorthodoxies of the Church Coerced" Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2018.