Релігійні інституції православної церкви за Синодального періоду як юридичні особи

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Шмарьова, Тетяна
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Статтю присвячено інституційній структурі православної церкви в Російській імперії за Синодального періоду. Окремі релігійні інституції розглянуто в контексті доктрини цивільного права і тогочасного законодавства як суб’єкти права церковної власності, але водночас - як складові єдиної помісної церкви, зв’язані правилами канонічності, ієрархічності, управління і контролю.
The article considers the institutional structure of the Orthodox Church in the Russian Empire in the Synodal period. Religious institutions are analyzed in the context of the doctrine of civil law and of the law of the studied times as subjects of law of the church property, and simultaneously as parts of single local church united by the rules of canonicity, hierarchy, administration, and control. The Church is considered to be a community of believers, and at the same time an institution that must exist until the end of the world. In the canonical meaning the Church is Unitary, Saint, Collegiate, and Apostle. Starting from Constantine, Christian emperors used to allow Christians to acquire property, and this brought many questions as to who had to be its owner, which influenced the quantity and variety of theories about theorigins of the church property. The formed tradition of providing particular church communities with property was taken by Kievan Rus form Byzantium and naturalized in all areas that were in the canonical subordination. At the same time, the community was in the canonical subordination of the bishop, who had influence on the management and order of the church properties as well. This is one of the specifics of the legal regime of the church property. The Law in the Russian Empire had no concept of "legal entity". Churches and monasteries acquired land ownerships and other movable and immovable property mainly through grants and wills in remembrance of the soul. The authorities limited such achievements and restricted them. In 1764 church lands were secularized. In the times of Peter I, patriarchal control of the church was replaced with the Synodal one. The Holy Synod was stated to be the authority, thus, church property was subjected to the treasury management. At the same time, some church institutions like bishops’ houses, monasteries and churches kept the right to own and rule (with consideration of canonical rules) over separated property. The above mentioned allows to state that the named church institutions were establishments that, according to the fact of owning separated property, ability of gaining rights and doing their duties, the right of being suitors and defendants in justice, can be considered as legal entities.
Російська імперія, Синодальний період, православна церква, релігійні інституції, юридична особа, стаття, Russian Empire, Synodal period, the Orthodox Church, religious institutions, legal entity
Шмарьова Т. О. Релігійні інституції православної церкви за Синодального періоду як юридичні особи / Шмарьова Т. О. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Юридичні науки. - 2016. - Т. 181. - С. 77-81.