Теорія фреймів крізь призму прагма-семантичної побудови дискурсу

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Рябоконь, Ганна
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Статтю присвячено дослідженню теорії і практики комунікації, а саме побудові новинного дискурсу через принципи теорії фреймів. Стаття наводить огляд базових праць з розвитку цієї теорії, визначає принципи прагма-семантичної побудови текстів новин і роль фреймових прийомів у когнітивному сприйнятті політичного дискурсу на прикладі дебатів у Палаті громад британського парламенту.
The article researches the theory and practice of communication, viz. news and political discourse through the principles of frames theory. Most political actions are performed verbally by performative speech acts: like approving bills, adopting laws, making political statements. These verbal activity bears significant influence on the way people perceive, process, interpret information, and form the judgments about realities which later develop into stereotypical and cognitive clichés that are firmly retained in consciousness as frames. Thus frames present a central organizing idea for understanding the events about some key issues. The macrotopic of the message acts as a package which contains the most wide-spread framing devises such as metaphors, exemplars, catch-phrases, and depictions that are actively used in news stories and political speeches. The article defines the principles of pragma-semantic structure of news texts and the role of framing devices in cognitive perception of political discourse on the material of the debates in the Houses of Commons of British Parliament. It was revealed that the general hypertopic of British political discourse is the positioning of Great Britain as an integral part of the western world with an emphasis on strategic and economic partnership with the USA. This hypertopic is realized on the level of speech acts – the most prevalent of which appear to be the addressor-oriented ones, particularly, performatives and cognitives – and semantic relations between propositions with the biggest amount of semantic relations “part of the whole”, which goes in accordance with the explicit hypertopic of the Parliamentary discourse. Semantic relations of identity and equivalence serve as the connecting element between the propositional units and contribute to coherence and cohesion of the discourse.
політичний дискурс, парламентські дебати, теорія фреймів, семантичні відношення між пропозиціями, мовленнєві акти, political discourse, theory of frames, macrotopic, relations between propositions, speech acts, parliamentary debates