Аналіз поняття ставки (stake) в теорії ігор

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Дем'янчук, Олександр
Заставна, Марина
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У статті детально розглянуто поняття ставки в політичній грі. На відміну від взаємодії економічних акторів, у грі між політичними гравцями ставкою найчастіше є нематеріальні ресурси - рейтинг у суспільстві, підтримка виборців, вплив на ухвалення рішень у міжнародній політиці. Визначення ставки в політичній грі проілюстровано на прикладі дій Російської Федерації й зокрема її президента В. Путіна стосовно анексії Криму.
The notion of “stake” in the Game Theory is considered in details for the case of political games. As the Ukrainian and English Political Science vocabularies sometimes differ in notion meanings, we have discussed how some terms from that theory are translated and understood in Ukrainian publications. One of the concepts which is not broadly explained is that of Stake. Several foreign authors in their texts on the Game Theory paid less attention to it. At the same time, the information about the players’ stakes in the game investigated may give more information about their hidden goals and intentions. We show that in the game of political players the stake usually refers mostly to intangible resources such as the politician’s prestige in the society, electoral support, or influence on making decisions in international politics. The tangible resources play a less important role as they are more auxiliary. We suggest the following definition of the Stake: this is a share – combination of tangible and intangible resources – which a player puts under a risk in the game to win the prize and gain the resources. The stake may be lost in a fail. In political games the stake is usually allotted to gain an influence (in a long-term perspective) and then to getting an output (in a short-term perspective). The definition of a stake in a political game is illustrated with the case of the Russian Federation and its President Vladimir Putin’s actions in the Crimea annexation. It has been shown that Putin’s main stake in the Presidential elections in 2000 and 2012 was his strong and charismatic leader image, the output was a stable support of the population, and the outcome was strengthening of his personal control over the country. In the game around Ukraine-Russia conflict in 2014-2016 and its first stage, the Crimea annexation, Putin’s stake was significantly the same: despite a risk of losing the prestige in the World politics, he punts his national leader image expecting national returns in Russia. As economic data indicate, the tangible resources spending was not considered as the factor of the first priority and the economic gains were not valued more than the political ones.
ставка у теорії гри, нематеріальні ресурси, Путін, Крим, stake on games theory, intangible resources, Putin, Crimea
Дем'янчук Олександр Петрович. Аналіз поняття ставки (stake) в теорії ігор / Дем’янчук О. П., Заставна М. С. // Магістеріум : Політичні студії. - 2016. - Т. 64. - С. 37-43.