Ми замість я: семантика і прагматика

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Ясакова, Наталія
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У статті проаналізовано семантико-прагматичні варіанти значення першої особи, що виникають унаслідок взаємодії категорій персональності та числа. Виокремлено ми авторське, царське, скромне, родинне, батьківське (опікунське), корпоративне, ми соціальної вагомості, ідеологічне, універсальне (філософське), ми привілейованої групи.
Linguists and philologists have noted the functioning of specific versions of the meaning of the first person in speech for a long time, but most often the efforts of scientists were aimed not at the typology and the interpretation of different types of pointing of the speakers to themselves, but at solving other problems. The wealth of values hidden behind the use of mu in different communication situations remains unclear. Purpose. The purpose of this research is to systematize the semantic-pragmatic variants expressed by the first-person plural forms. Methods. The descriptive method was used as the main one in the study, as well as the methods of distributional analysis, transformational analysis, discourse analysis. Results. A separate way of referencing the speaker is the author's mu, which is typical, first, for scientific discourse. It is standardized by tradition and is supported by the general direction to objectivize the content. The royal mu is aimed at emphasizing an exceptionally high social status of the speaker, the distance between the communicants, as well as certifying the officiality of the speech situation. In most cases the use of mu instead of n means the involvement of other people into the speaker’s personal sphere. The plural form helps to avoid the uncomfortable personalization for the addressee or to submit the expressed opinion as an official position of a certain circle of persons that he/she represents. A special functional area of non-referential use of mu, which is indirectly related to the speaker, is formed outside the conditions of the situation of interpersonal communication. Discussion. The plural form often shows that there are additional pragmatically predetermined values related to the speaker in the context of certain acts of communication. The use of mu instead of n allows to emphasize its exceptional social function and communicative status, namely degenerating the role of the speaker as a separate individual, which does not necessarily mean reducing his/her communicative status. The study of the speaker’s self-referencing methods, which are proper to the Ukrainian language, will help to establish cognitive-communicative features of the global picture and to analyse different types of discourse.
категорія персональності, семантика, прагматика, семантико-прагматичний варіант, перша особа, мовець, стаття, category of personality, semantics, pragmatics, the semantic and pragmatic option, first person, speaker
Ясакова Н. Ю. Ми замість я: семантика і прагматика / Наталія Ясакова // Мова : класичне - модерне - постмодерне : збірник наукових праць / відп. ред. В. Ожоган ; Нац. ун-т "Києво-Могилянська академія". - Київ : Дух і Літера, 2017. - Вип. 3. - С. 121-131.