Походження трипільців із печери Вертеба у світлі краніології і археогенетики

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Потєхіна, Інна
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У статті висвітлено питання біологічних витоків носіїв трипільської культури, які на етапі BII-CI мешкали на Подільській височині. Дослідження базується на краніологічних матеріалах із печери Вертеба, відкритих М. Сохацьким у 2007-2008 рр. Радіокарбонне датування визначило вік черепів у межах 3900-3500 cal. BC. Результати краніологічного і археогенетичного аналізів черепів із Вертеби розглянуто в контексті неолітичних і ранньоенеолітичних культур Південно-Східної Європи. Антропологічний склад трипільців сформувався на основі середземноморського типу за участю протоєвропеоїдного компоненту. Аналіз Мт ДНК і повного геному визначив їхній родовід від анатолійських неолітичних фермерів з незначною домішкою мезолітичних мисливців і збирачів Центральної і Південно-Східної Європи.
The Trypillia culture is considerably important in terms of understanding the development of agriculture away from the core areas of south-eastern Europe. The site of Verteba Cave in Podillia represents a unique opportunity to study an important stage in the development of the Trypillia farming culture in Ukraine, due to the fact that it appears to contain human skeletal material that is placed within earlier phases of this culture (phases BII-CI) than have previously been recovered in Ukraine. The anthropological and genomic study is based on the series of skulls which were uncovered in Verteba by M. Sokhatsky during his archaeological excavations in 2007-2008. The Oxford radiocarbon dates place all these skulls in the period of 3900-3500 cal BC. Craniological analysis revealed the anthropological heterogeneity of Verteba population. Most individuals (Nos. 2-6) are associated with the Mediterranean type. In general, they are characterized by a dolichocranic form of the skull, a narrow or medium face, well or moderately profiled in the horizontal plane. However, two of them (Nos. 3 and 4) demonstrate light admixture with the proto-European type. One individual (No. 1) who has the most robust skull, broad face, and a little bit weakened horizontal profile, belongs to the proto-Europoid type. The mitochondrial genome study of Trypillians from Verteba was conducted in Grand Valley State University by A. Nikitin. The results of this analysis indicate that four individuals (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5) turned out to be carriers of mitochondrial haplogroups (H5a, HV0, H, and HV) traced to Anatolian farmers and Neolithic farming groups of south-east and central Europe. Another person from Verteba (No. 4) carried the haplogroup T2b, which is a marker of the expansion of people from Anatolia to Europe in the early Neolithic. At the same time, two individuals (Nos. 6 and 7) had haplogroups U8b1b and U8d1a2, which are typical of Upper Palaeolithic hunters-gatherers in Europe, as well as Mesolithic and Early-Neolithic populations of the North Pontic Region. The mtDNA haplogroup diversity found in the remains at Verteba is typical of a group of European Neolithic farmers tracing their maternal genetic roots from Anatolia with little admixture with indigenous hunter-gatherers. The whole genome analysis was carried out in the D. Reich’s genetic laboratory at Medical School of Harvard University. According to different models, the ratio of admixtures somewhat vary in different samples, which, however, does not affect the whole picture. Overall, the Anatolian genetic fraction was found to be the main of Trypillians at Verteba: it is about 83 % of their genome. The rest of their genetic heritage falls on admixture derived from the Western hunters-gatherers (14 %) and the Eastern huntersgatherers (3 %) of Europe. At the individual level, the smallest amount of the hunters-gatherers impurities were found in individuals who belong to the Mediterranean craniological type, while the largest proportion of these impurities is present in a man with a proto-Europoid craniological complex. This confirms the consistency of the results of craniology and genetics. The results of this study indicate that in the territory of western Ukraine the BII-CI Trypillya populations leads its lineage from the direct descendants of Anatolian Neolithic farmers who, gradually moving in the north-eastern direction, mixed up with the local hunters-gatherers. Their contacts were not always peaceful, as evidenced by numerous cases of brain-penetrating trauma on the skulls from Verteba. The traces of these contacts were imprinted differently in the genome and anthropological type of Trypillians, which may be due to the peculiarities of marriage strategies in these groups.
Трипільська культура, ранні землероби, генетична історія, антропологічний тип, краніологія, археогенетика, МтДНК, повний геном, стаття, Trypillian culture, early farmers, genomic history, anthropological type, craniology, archeogenetics, mtDNA, full genome
Потєхіна І. Д. Походження трипільців із печери Вертеба у світлі краніології і археогенетики / Потєхіна І. Д. // Магістеріум. Археологічні студії. - 2018. - Вип. 70. - С. 25-33.