Проблеми вивчення еволюції арабографічної тюрксько-османської писемності

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Туранли, Ферхад Ґардашкан Оглу
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Досліджено проблему поступального розвитку турецької рукописної писемної традиції, зазначено загальні типові та специфічні особливості рукописних документів, написаних тюрксько-арабографічною, тюрксько-османською мовою впродовж другої половини ХV – першої чверті ХVIII ст. При цьому наголошується, що цю мову в сучасній тюркології розглядають як варіант загальної тюркської мови тюркі ( .(تُرْكىِ
The subject of the study is a progressive development of the Turkish manuscript tradition. There have been outlined the general typical and specific features of the manuscript documents ( وقيعنامه / vakâyi‛- nâme, that is “a chronicleс”) that were written in the Arabographic Turkic Ottoman language between the second half of the 16th C. and the first quarter of the 18th C. In Turkic Studies this language is a variant of the common Turkic language called “Turkey” ( تُرْكىِ ). In the historic retrospective the mentioned written sources originate directly from the oldest remnants of the Turkic language and writing system, and namely – from the Runic inscriptions on the tombstone monuments found in the basin of Orkhon River. These Runic inscriptions are written memos reflecting the initial phase of the Turkic chronicle writing development. It seems worth emphasizing that a significant amount of the source stuff that we have studied was compiled on the base of eyewitnesses’ attestation: direct witnesses of the events and phenomena, information of which was fixed in Turkic Ottoman chronicles referred to from the second half of the 16th century to the first half of the 18th century. We suppose that this tradition of the Turkic Ottoman chronicle-writing, related to the above mentioned historical period, is a kind of a “reporting genre” ( رِسَالَة ) that existed in the Arabic writing tradition in the early Medieval times. “Seljukname” is historically important for the source studies of the Turkic Ottoman writing system not only due to the given chronicle in terms of its origin it is the oldest manuscript in Turkish, but for the reason that its contents clearly reflected the connection of the Turkic Ottoman chronicle-writing tradition with the Arabic writing tradition related to the early Medieval period. In 1046, resulting from the victory of the military forces of Togrul-bey, the Ruler of the state of the Seljuk’s ( رُ کنالدین طُغرُلبک بِن سَلجوقْ ), over the Bizentine Army in a battle that took place near the city of Genje in Azerbaijan, this area came under the power of the Turkic Seljuks state too. It is from that time that the oldest original texts of the Turkic Ottoman chronicle-writing are related to; the Turkish chroniclestudying scholars called them “Tevârîh” ( تواريخ ) or “Târîh” ( تاريخ ), i.e. “History” or “a chronicle”. When considering the Turkic chronicle-writing, it should be noted that in the Ottoman Empire each noble person, and the Sultan ( سُلتان ) primarily, as well as the other highest authorities in the Sultan’s government (namely these were the وزيرى اعظم / vezîr-i a zam) and the sheikh-ül İslâm ( شيخول اِسلام ) headed a Mejlis ( / مجلِس meclis) of his own, that is had a close circle of his friends, counselors, supporters. At such majlises there were read and discussed historical events for the purpose of checking the authenticity of the data related to the respective events, so as to highlight them in chronical works in a fact-based way.
еволюція, мова, рукопис, традиція, письмо, літопис, абетка, тюрки
Туранли Фергад Ґардашкан Оглу. Проблеми вивчення еволюції арабографічної тюрксько-османської писемності / Туранли Ф. Ґ. // Магістеріум. - 2016. - Вип. 62 : Мовознавчі студії. - С. 89-95.