Зброя в жіночих похованнях катакомбної спільноти

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Пустовалов, Сергій
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Статтю присвячено розгляду жіночих поховань катакомбної спільності із зброєю. Обґрунтовано висновок про те, що зброя в жіночих похованнях є ознакою певного соціального статусу в цьому суспільстві.
The focus of this article is on discoveries of arms in burial places of women during the Bronze Age Catacomb community. Such burials of women together with weapon are well-known for Scythians and Sarmatians. Over a period of these cultures young women and girls were buried. Arms were specific for these types of burials. Burials exclusively contained bows, arrows, and javelins. In total, the portion of such burials is from 20 to 29 %. The burials of women with weapon were discovered within the Catacomb archaeological community as well, and almost all arms were made during the Ingul culture period. Most of the burials originated from the area of the middle course of the Molochna river, where the largest social center of Catacomb community was found. Arms items include arrowheads, sling-stones, parts of chariot, stone axes, and arrow shaft straighteners. The age of buried women varied significantly. In the burial there were old women and young girls. Four of them were from 25 to 35 years old, two 35–45, and two were 55–70 years old. Thus they present various age groups. Contextual analysis of the found arms items does not allow to make a conclusion on having the arms in such burials for intended use. Very often women were buried together with children. The women’s constitution and muscular system do not indicate that they had steered a chariot. It is assumed that the arms in the burials present crafts during the lifetime of women who died a severe death. Both arms and other parts of the ritual, as well as findings (modelling, prickers, wheels in harness, filling up or mounds) indicate a high social status of the buried persons rather than crafting associated with the arms and participation in battles. It appears that such accessories in the burials had a symbolic meaning. In the author’s opinion it marks a high birth status of the buried person. Buried women, in above mentioned burials, may have belonged to the charioteer estate (where edges of prickers and wheel had been found), warriors estate (catacombs with arms), and armorers (where arrow shaft straighteners were found). They may have been wives or children of the representatives of those estates.
поховальний обряд, доба бронзи, зброя, соціальний статус, стаття, burial customs, Bronze Age, weapon, women, social status
Пустовалов С. Ж. Зброя в жіночих похованнях катакомбної спільноти / Пустовалов С. Ж. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. - 2016. - Т. 179 : Теорія та історія культури. - С. 86-89.