Історія виникнення та розвитку школи правового реалізму

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Мельник, М.
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У статті здійснено аналіз передумов виникнення й розвитку американської та скандинавської течій школи правового реалізму. З’ясовано витоки ідей та розкрито концептуальні основи фундаторів школи.
This article describes the precondition of emergence and development of the American and Scandinavian school of legal realism. The author analyzes the origins of ideas and the conceptual basis of the school founders. The development of civil society, the spiritual situation, and socio-political events that took place in the late 18th – early 20th century led to new phenomena, new needs and demands of society, which have not been reflected in the previously established concepts of legal thinking. Criticism of legal positivism was well represented in continental Europe, where a new trend of thinking had been searching for law in real life and social relations, in the sense of justice, psychology of society, and argued against the radical "verbalism". This school of thought was identified as the school of "free law" with its spiritual father Eugene Ehrlich. The article outlines the core ideas of the free-law school of Eugen Ehrlich. Further, the author describes how the concepts of Eugen Ehrlich influenced the sociological jurisprudence of Roscoe Pound and modeled the basis for the formation and development of the American school of legal realism. Along with the similarity of schools’ ideas, there was a significant difference, which shows the evolution of the concept of American legal realism in the direction of gravity to human-centrism. Simultaneously with the American flow, the Scandinavian school of legal realism emerged and developed. However, except for the differences in geographic spaces, there were other conceptual differences between the two schools. While the founders of the American legal realism were legal practitioners who were in search of ways to counteract mechanical jurisprudence in the legal proceedings, Scandinavian school was developed by philosophers who tried to figure out what should be comprehended as the legal reality. The author pays attention to the fundamentals of the American and Scandinavian schools of legal realism by analyzing the core ideas of the schools’ founders. In the result of the research the author reaches a conclusion that the analysis of the history and fundamental ideas of the founders of American and Scandinavian legal realism shows that the school has taken an important place in the development of the legal thought both in continental and Anglo-Saxon legal families.
школа "вільного права", аналіз фактів, формальна логіка, живе право, школа американського правового реалізму, скандинавська течія школи правового реалізму, емпірична реальність, стаття, "Free law" School, facts analysis, formal logic, living law, the American school of legal realism, Scandinavian school of legal realism, empirical reality
Мельник М. О. Історія виникнення та розвитку школи правового реалізму / Мельник М. О. // Наукові записки НаУКМА : Юридичні науки. - 2016. - Т. 181. - С. 73-76.