Етичний вибір героя серіалу з погляду психоаналізу

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Собуцький, Михайло
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У статті здійснено аналітичний огляд сучасних серіалів різної жанрової приналежності, зокрема фентезі, псевдосередньовічної історії, а також скандинавського нуару (детективу). Головну увагу приділено можливостям застосування так званої етики психоаналізу до серіальної продукції початку ХХІ ст. Підкреслено зміну проблематики в сучасному серіалі, що своєю чергою пов’язано із зсувами в сучасній культурі. Констатується неоднозначність етичного вибору, що є проявом так званої етики бажання, на противагу етиці утилітарній.
We have some reasonable grounds to believe that constant transformations of the contemporary world bring about considerable changes in the phantasms representing its hopes and fears. Visual serial products, spread through TV and/or the Internet, make clearly seen a deep discrepancy between Manichean world of daydreaming of the previous century, where good guys always defeated bad guys, and more complicated patterns of nowadays. The most renowned serials such as the "Game of Thrones" or "Vikings" reveal relatively new features in the relatively old ethical universe of the fantasy genre. In our opinion, their barbarian cruelty and straightforwardness indicate a shift from conventional or utilitarian ethical standards to a mode which could be described through a maxim forwarded by Jacques Lacan: "One may feel guilty only if one betrays one’s desire." The desire which is meant here is not a whimsical wish but an innermost principle of an individual’s existence. We cannot hope that a hero of a contemporary serial would be "moral" in the usual sense, but truly devoted to the unconscious desire he or she will be. We equal the British serial "The Last Kingdom" to the products mentioned above in its ethical ruthlessness. Also we contrast and compare to the fantasy or historical serials some samples of the so-called "Nordic noir." This genre is represented here by such two samples as the Norwegian "Okkupert’ ("Occupied"), a tentative construction of Norway’s near future, and Swedish-Danish "Bron/Broen" ("Bridge"), a crosscultural detective story about today’s life. The crucial point of the plot in the "Occupied" is that Russia tries to occupy Norway in a half-hidden way. This situation brings every person concerned, starting from the prime minister, to a moral trial on the way he or she chooses, i.e. moral utilitarianism vs. patriotic principles. The question "What could you die for?" remains unanswered, but everybody behaves as a real signifier of some possible answer to it. And in the "Bridge," we see a sharp contrast between not only two but even three possible ethical maxims: follow your desire, follow your conventional human condition, or follow the written instructions. Not a single one of them wins; each choice has its demerits. Thus, the contemporary serial is a much more complicated ethical construction than one used to believe.
серіал, психоаналіз, бажання, етика, означник, стаття, serial, psychoanalysis, desire, ethics, signifier
Собуцький М. А. Етичний вибір героя серіалу з погляду психоаналізу / Собуцький М. А. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. - 2016. - Т. 179 : Теорія та історія культури. - С. 57-63.