Етнічна демократія та демократія міжетнічної згоди: порівняльний аналіз

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Коршук, Роман
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У статті проаналізовано концепції етнічної демократії та демократії міжетнічної згоди. Розглянуто зміст цих концепцій, здійснено їхній порівняльний аналіз.
The article analyzes the concept of ethnic democracy and interethnic consent democracy. Ethnic democracy is seen as a specific type of a democratic political regime that seeks to combine the first incompatible principles: democratic procedures and the dominance of the ethnic majority. The author of the concept of ethnic democracy is an Israeli researcher Sammy Smooha. The ethnic democracy combines democratic rights for all citizens, certain collective rights of ethnic minorities, and the ethnic majority domination. Examples of ethnic democracy today are Israel, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and other countries. The article distinguishes the features of ethnic democracy, outlines several factors that contribute to the smooth functioning of the democratic form of the political regime, and examines the problem of correlation characteristics of ethnic democracy and ethnocracy. The author of the concept of the interethnic consent democracy (in a broader sense, consocial democracy, democracy of communities) is an American researcher Arend d’Angremond Lijphart. He considers this form of democracy as the best way to solve the problems of inter-group interaction in plural societies. The concept of interethnic consent democracy is based on the desire to overcome the ratio “dominant majority vs non-ruling minority” by consensus procedures, providing each ethnic community opportunities to participate in state affairs. Examples of interethnic consent democracy are Switzerland, Belgium, Canada, Lebanon, Cyprus (for the years 1960-63), Czechoslovakia (1989–1992). This article analyzes the basic features of democracy interethnic consent and considers conditions of optimal functioning of interethnic consent democracy. Comparative analysis of concepts and practical examples of implementation of the ethnic democracy and the interethnic consent democracy shows that, in spite of significant differences, they have some common features. The ethnic democracy is democracy of ethnic majority, while interethnic consent democracy is democracy of ethnic majorities – the main ethnic segments. The interethnic consent democracy provides for equal rights to members of the largest ethnic (cultural) segments, while immigrants and numerically small indigenous peoples find themselves in the role of national minorities. Also, both of these forms unify the presence of insight (mythical or real) of external or internal threats that existed in the past or currently exist. In fact, this feature is one of the cementing elements of the existence of ethnic democracy and interethnic consent democracy.
етнополітика, демократичний політичний режим, етнічна демократія, демократія міжетнічної згоди, етнічність, нація, націоналізм, меншина, титульна нація, панівна нація, ethnopolitics, democratic political regime, ethnic democracy, interethnic consent democracy, ethnicity, nation, national/ethnic minority, titular ethnic group, dominant nation
Коршук Роман Миколайович. Етнічна демократія та демократія міжетнічної згоди : порівняльний аналіз / Коршук Р. М. // Магістеріум : Політичні студії. - 2016. - Т. 64. - С. 44-49.