No. 9 : Hryhorii Skovoroda and the Baroque World

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    A Few Words on the Occasion of Hryhorii Skovoroda’s 300th Anniversary
    (2022) Tkachuk, Maryna
    Foreword by the editor-in-chief Maryna Tkachuk.
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    Hryhorii Skovoroda’s Socratic Dialogue in the Context of Modern Philosophy
    (2022) Yermolenko, Anatoliy
    This article explores the creative work of Hryhorii Savych Skovoroda from the standpoint of the leading trends in contemporary philosophic thought: a communicative turn in philosophy, neo-Socratic dialogue, and ethics of discourse. Skovoroda’s philosophy is interpreted not only in line with the ‘know yourself’ principle as a method of cognition, but, fi rst of all, within the Socratic dialogue dimension when the methods of maieutics and elentics are used for joint searching for truth and solving moral problems. Skovoroda did not reduce philosophy to life, but he raised life to philosophy; philosophy itself was his life and in the fi rst place, it was the practical philosophy of dialogue. Socratic dialogue appears in the practices of communication with people, in particular in the wandering habitus of the thinker. Wandering is an important element of his philosophy, his life, and his habitus. The wandering nature of Skovoroda’s habitus takes his dialogues beyond epistemology bringing the dialogue into a practical, or rather moral and practical plane. As an educator, Skovoroda draws on the Ukrainian culture habitus and practices and transcends this habitus and thus elevating it to the habitus of reason. This paper asserts the idea of the need and necessity to develop and to practice the neo- Skovoroda’s dialogue as a component of the global trend of dialogic civilization development.
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    Hryhorii Skovoroda as a Liminal Hero of Ukrainian Culture
    (2022) Osadcha, Larysa
    The article is devoted to the analysis of the cultural and socio-political situation in Ukraine in the 18th century. At that time the administrative and social transformations took place, and the ethos of the old Ukrainian Cossack’s culture was replaced by the imperial order. That cultural borderline allows us to understand the philosophical and life extraordinariness of Hryhorii Skovoroda. Instead of choosing one of these socio-cultural poles, he remained "on the edge," in a state of transition or liminality, which made his position vulnerable but at the same time free from social stereotypes. In cultural anthropology, the concept of liminality indicates a transitional position of man in the social system. A person could be in a liminal position only for a short period of time. This experience of individualization and being apart from the social system was so rare for the ordinary everyday life of collectivist cultures that made an unforgettable impression on a person. The wandering philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda completely falls under the characteristics of a liminal hero, but at his own request, he remained in a borderline position refusing to return to an orderly social system. Therefore, considering the features of his vital liminality helps to understand deeper the phenomenon of philosophical Skovorodianism.
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    Emblematic Patterns and Metaphysical Meanings of Hryhorii Skovoroda
    (2022) Soletskyi, Oleksandr
    The focus of the author’s attention has been on the emblematic sense concentration in the philosophical system of Hryhorii Skovoroda. The study aims to reveal the artistic and style features of eide emblematic formation in the texts of the Ukrainian sophist, their origin, context, and conceptual classifi cation by the author himself. The theoretical generalizations were essentially based on the philosophical treatises and dialogues by Hryhorii Skovoroda and the studies of other scholars. To analyze the issues under scrutiny, the author applied structuralist and semiotic methodology. The article highlights the emblematic sense, conveyance, and dominance in Skovoroda’s works. Emblematic forms of signifi cation play a unique role in elucidating the anthropological, metaphysical, ethical, aesthetic, and hermeneutic dimensions of the Ukrainian poet and philosopher. Skovoroda considers emblemacity a particularly eff ective pictorial and verbal (iconic-conventional) type of "signifi cative" speech, functioning as metalanguage.
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    The Motive of Discrepancy in Hryhorii Skovoroda’s Works
    (2022) Petrenko-Tseunova, Olha
    The article explores the discrepancy of the form and the content as a philosophical, moral and axiological problem in the works of Hryhorii Skovoroda. Using the phenomenological reading and structural analysis, the author investigates the interaction between the form and the content in treatises, soliloquies, poems, and letters of Skovoroda. The intellectual and aesthetic background of the Baroque epoch to a large extent explains why this motive of discrepancy occupies a prominent place among the writings of the Ukrainian philosopher. The article analyzes the main plots, in which the discrepancy is revealed: vocation against non-congenial work; a real friend and a fl unkey; the truth and a false thing; and the heavenly and an earthly city. After considering all these aspects and other crucial issues, it is concluded what makes the problem of discrepancy an invariant motive in the works of Hryhorii Skovoroda.
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    Greek Content in the Work of Hryhorii Skovoroda: Intertextual Dimensions or Artistic Bilingualism of the Author?
    (2022) Snigovska, Oksana
    The purpose of the article is to raise a question on reasons for the availability of Greek content in the work of the great Ukrainian thinker Hryhorii Skovoroda and on the functions of bi-/ multilingualism of his texts. The relevance of the study is based on the contradiction between the objective need to reveal the phenomenon of artistic bilingualism and the features of his polycode text caused by verbal and cogitative activity of his creative bilingual personality. The author of the article concludes that the emergence of texts of bi-/polylingual personalities is preceded by a change in their worldview and the formation of a new culture and language space. Thus, the implementation of the linguistic and worldview approaches of Hryhorii Skovoroda is based on the old Ukrainian literary and written tradition of the late 16th–18th centuries, guarded within the walls of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. Exploring the artistic models of the writer’s world, the researcher focuses on the defi nition of intertextual connections, in particular on the fact of intertextuality. In the article the phenomenon of bilingualism is discussed contextually and correlates with the problem of intercultural contacts and infl uences.
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    "Similis Simili Gaudet": Lavrentii Kordet and Hryhorii Skovoroda
    (2022) Posokhova, Liudmyla
    The paper examines the connections between the rector of Kharkiv Collegium, Archimandrite Lavrentii Kordet, and some of the close friends, acquaintances, and correspondents of Hryhorii Skovoroda. The main focus is on Kordet’s intellectual biography and the essential features of interpersonal communication among the faculty of Kharkiv Collegium in the second half of the 18th century. The study draws on the principles of network analysis and reconstruction of intellectual network models. The author argues that Lavrentii Kordet, Hryhorii Skovoroda, and some of their friends connected with Kharkiv Collegium (Mykhailo Kovalynskyi, Yov Bazylevych, etc.) embodied the type of person whose identity centered on intellectual activity. They devoted a signifi cant portion of their lives to academic teaching, cared about professional self-improvement, and kept up with the latest scholarly and literary works. These intellectuals engaged in active "academic communication" with their colleagues, which was designed to generate specifi c activities aimed at dissemination of learning. The community of which Lavrentii Kordet and Hryhorii Skovoroda were part clearly represented a new type of intellectual relations in the lands of Sloboda Ukraine.
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    Skovorodynstvo and skovorodyntsi as an Alternative Sociocultural Trend (the End of the 18th and the First Half of the 19th Centuries)
    (2022) Okarynskyi, Volodymyr
    The article examines the skovorodynstvo as the socio-cultural trend of the educated class of followers of philosophical views and, most of all, the lifestyle of Ukrainian travelling philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda (1722–1794). Common to the skovorodyntsi was the fascination with the person of Skovoroda. The skovorodynstvo was in agreement with some other nonconformist trends of that time, had a connection with the Ukrainian national movement. Thus, is it a coincidence that the initiators of the Ukrainian cultural and national revival such as Ivan Kotliarevskyi, Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnovianenko and their followers are included in this movement? What features of Skovoroda’s way of life did attract his followers, and what did they bring on their own? The nonconformism of Ukrainian pre-romanticism and early romanticism coincided with the nonconformist lifestyle of the philosopher, noticeable and attractive during his lifetime and especially after his death. The skovorodynstvo can be divided into two trends: popular (among the general public) and intellectual. Skovorodyntsi from intellectual movement (intellectuals) found themselves in literary work, discovering or propagandizing the ideas of the skovorodynstvo, as well as giving the image of the skovorodynets. During the period between 1790 and 1850, the skovorodynstvo remained as a marker of the alternatives. The intellectual moods of the 19th century perceived or rejected the skovorodynstvo, oscillating between realistic materialism and idealistic mysticism, but such a trend to some extent continued, thus enriching other alternative socio-cultural or intellectual-aesthetic moves (tolstovstvo, modernism etc).
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    Multitude of Images of Hryhorii Skovoroda in the Works of Kyiv Theological Academy Teachers and Students (19th – early 20th Century)
    (2022) Pastushenko, Liudmyla
    This is the fi rst article recreating the full history of research on the Ukrainian philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda made by students and teachers of the Kyiv Theological Academy in the second half of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century. The analysis highlights the qualitative diversity of research interpretations of Skovoroda’s fi gure and his creative work in cultural, historical, and biographical contexts, while identifying common features that unite those diff erent scientifi c perceptions. The article demonstrates that the academic research interest in Skovoroda’s heritage was both due to the desire to introduce this little-known at that time fi gure of the Ukrainian thinker by creating a variety of attractive images, and to prove that idealistic direction prevailed in local philosophy since the beginning of its formation. Disclosing the multilayered structure of interpretations of Skovoroda present in the scientifi c studies of theological academic researchers, enabled the author to show simultaneous unity and diversity of theoretical and methodological approaches found within the national academic interpretational fi eld and determined by diff erent philosophical, scientifi c, cultural, educational, and sociopolitical priorities of researchers.
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    "When There Is Harmony in the Family...": From Hryhorii Skovoroda to Epigraphic Embroidery
    (2022) Brovarets, Tetiana
    This article focuses on the famous folklorized text De zghoda v rodyni, tam myr i tyshyna, shchaslyvi tam liudy, blazhenna storona ("When there is harmony in the family, peace and quiet are there, these people are happy and this land is blessed"), mainly on its genesis and connection with Hryhorii Skovoroda. At the fi rst sight, its authorship is clear and easy to identify. It seems obvious that these lines come from the play Natalka Poltavka by Ivan Kotliarevskyi, who was, in his turn, deeply infl uenced by Hryhorii Skovoroda. However, the folklorization of this verse, which is, subsequently, of great research interest, has caused numerous misattributions of the authorship. The article illustrates the folklorization of these famous lines with concrete examples of epigraphic embroideries listed on the author’s Interactive Online Index of Folklore Formulas (Epigraphic Embroidery).
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    Cordocentrism and Natural Philosophy of Hryhorii Skovoroda in the Poetry of "Silent Poets"
    (2022) Sharagina, Olha
    The article has examined the infl uence of cordocentrism and natural philosophy of Hryhorii Skovoroda on the formation of worldviews and aesthetic program of "silent poets." The motive and fi gurative constants of "silent poets," the specifi cs of the creation of their poetic universe through the conceptual system of cordocentric and natural philosophical codes are clarifi ed. It is proved, that in the poetry of Iryna Zhylenko, Svitlana Yovenko, Anatolii Kychynskyi, Volodymyr Pidpalyi, Liudmyla Skyrda, Leonid Talalai, Pavlo Movchan, Dmytro Cherednychenko the image of the heart became a symbol, which emphasized the spirituality of human, formed by the humanistic attitude to the world. The dominant place in the poetic creativity of "silent poetry" was occupied by the sensual imperative: love, love for relatives, and the native land. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the natural world endowed the lyrical hero of "silent poets" with mental harmony and freedom of choice, conditioned by moral foundations and beliefs, independent of the political situation of the second half of the 20th century.
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    Retranslating Skovoroda’s Conversation on Happiness into English: Language and Cultural Challenges
    (2022) Moiseyenko, Olena; Mazin, Dmytro
    The article focuses on Hryhorii Skovoroda’s philosophical dialogue dedicated to the nature of human and happiness as a bright example of a harmonious fusion of philosophical ideas and individual style. A comparative analysis based on a hermeneutic approach helped to assess the equivalency in representing the lexical, syntactical, and emotional levels of the reconstructed Ukrainian version of Skovoroda’s dialogue via English translation, and thus contribute to clarifying the reliable strategies of translating a chronologically remote text of philosophical discourse. The research stresses the importance for a translator of philosophical works of Hryhorii Skovoroda to thoroughly consider the contextual meaning, inseparability of the concepts and style, and unique syntactic and emotive patterns of the source text confl ating explicit and implicit semantics. In addition to deep understanding by translators of key philosophical terms, charged with contextual connotations, an equivalent translation of philosophic texts also demands suffi cient knowledge of the related historical, cultural, and linguistic background to ensure a comprehensive perception of the intended senses and vectors of the mental activity by a reader.