Лінгвістичні прийоми легітимації у ЗМІ

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Чадюк, Марія
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Дух і Літера
Статтю присвячено прийомам, які використовують у текстах ЗМІ задля представлення певних дій як правомірних чи неправомірних. Для аналізу способів і засобів легітимації було адаптовано схему нідерландського лінгвіста Т. ван Левена. На прикладі дискусії щодо мовної політики компанії McDonald’s проаналізовано прийоми апеляції до авторитету, моральних цінностей і раціоналізації, а також з’ясовано, які з них частіше використовують для підтвердження слушності дії, а які – для спростування певної позиції.
Background. According to the critical discourse analysis theory, language is a mediator in the representation of reality, not its objective reflection. An important component of the representation of the event is not only the description of actions but also their interpretation as legitimate or wrong, which the category of legitimacy reflects, the influence of which is only exacerbated by the low level of media literacy of Ukrainians. Significant linguistic influence of the legitimation category and insufficient study of it in terms of methods of critical discourse analysis in Ukrainian linguistics determine the relevance of the study. The purpose of the article is to investigate what methods of legitimation and delegitimization are used in the news discourse on the example of representation of the discussion about the language policy of McDonald’s in Ukraine. Methods. The methodology of Theo van Leeuwen for the analysis of legitimacy, descriptive and inductive methods, the methods of component and pragmatic analysis, and other methods were applied. Results. It was found out that the articles mostly used two categories – authorization and moral values. In former methods of impersonal authority (which were embodied mostly by words that contained in their meaning components «rule» or «duty»), the authority of conformity (linguistic means were nouns, adjectives, pronouns with numerical meaning, for the latter number and definiteness were also important) and role model authority (for this type adjectives like popular and proper names were used) dominated. In the latter category evaluation and abstraction were the most used methods, which were based mostly only on the connotations of words that they had due to correlation with values or, in the case of delegitimization, practices that were considered wrong. The third category was implemented mainly at the syntactic level using the conjunctions of cause and effect. Discussion. Authorization and moral values were most often used for legitimation, and evaluation and abstraction were used for delegitimization. The category of legitimacy requires more detailed theoretical elaboration (hierarchy of methods, criteria for distinguishing categories, creating new subtypes) and can be used to analyze current values and authorities.
критичний дискурс-аналіз, лінгвістичний вплив, мовна легітимація, стаття, critical discourse analysis, linguistic influence, linguistic legitimation
Чадюк М. О. Лінгвістичні прийоми легітимації у ЗМІ / Марія Чадюк // Мова: класичне - модерне - постмодерне. - 2020. - Вип. 6. - С. 69-91. - https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2020.6.69-91