Євроінтеграція як "тонка ідеологія" в українській політиці: концептуальний аналіз

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Печенкін, Антон
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Статтю присвячено представленню орієнтацій на європейську і пострадянську інтеграцію в українській політиці як ідеологічних позицій, які оформились після Майдану 2004 року і стали ключовими упродовж Євромайдану та подій після нього. Для обґрунтування такого підходу застосовано концептуально-морфологічний підхід до ідеологій М. Фрідена та розроблене у його рамках поняття «тонкої ідеології».
The article concentrates on observing the main ideological cleavages in Ukrainian political sphere and investigating its nature in relation to classical ideological systems. Classically, political scientists used to consider the basic trinity of modern ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and socialism, which constitute the left-right “spectrum” of political positions depending on the relation to economical and cultural issues. However, from the mid of the 20th century some plenty of thinkers, theorists, and scientists (as Daniell Bell, Raymond Aron, Francis Fukuyama, and others) put forward the idea of the death of ideology and loss of its ability to shape the political struggle either in Western societies or wherever else. The author of the article claims, basing on theories of Karl Mannheim, Clifford Geertz, Louis Althusser, Ernest Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, Andrea Freire, and, in particular, of British theorist of ideology Michael Freeden and his adherent Ben Stanley, that ideological beliefs still play quite a significant role in Ukrainian politics, which can be proven on the vivid material of 2013 to present. However, it is to be remarked, the classical scheme of left-right division does not work any longer. The main thesis of the article is that the latter was shifted by the nexus of two opposing opinions regarding which course in the foreign policy our country must chose: pro-Russian or pro-European. Using the approach of conceptual morphology in analyzing the internal structure of ideology, developed by Michael Freeden, and in particular the concept of “thin ideology”, the author portrays two mentioned above positions as convincing examples of such “thin ideologies”. Their “thinness” is explained through their internal logical structure: both the orientation to the European integration and pro-Russian attitudes have in their core a barely geographical term, the political meaning of which is underlined by peripheral concepts borrowed from classical ideologies. In different situations we may observe a wide palette of combinations of those concepts, which is specific for the phenomenon of “thin ideologies”. Besides the conceptual dimension, the author also pays attention to mythological and symbolical components of both ideological positions observed in the paper. Combining them makes it possible to say that both the orientation to the European integration and pro-Russian attitudes have the ideological nature and are the central cleavage in Ukrainian politics.
ідеологія, євроінтеграція, "Русский мир", Євромайдан, концептуальна морфологія, ideology, Eurointegration, “Russian world”, Euromaidan, conceptual morphology