Раннє металургійне виробництво на теренах України в експозиції музеїв

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Пустовалов, Сергій
Чухрай, Любов
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У статті розглянуто етапи та особливості створення науково обґрунтованих, так званих ситуаційних, макетів металургійних і супутніх виробництв пізньобронзової та ранньозалізної доби України задля підвищення рівня музейної атрактивності. За основу реконструкцій взято пізньобронзові, ранньоскіфські та ранньослов’янські пам’ятки, які містять металургійні горна, типові залізні речі.
The rich archaeological heritage of Ukraine is represented in museum expositions by various finds. Almost every region of Ukraine has unique archaeological sites. A much higher level of attraction gives the visitor a display in the exposition of the context of the find. However, there are almost no such contextual reconstructions. The purpose of this article is to highlight the place and role of contextual models of metallurgical production of the population of Ukraine in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the archaeological and historical exposition. Coal pits and ditches, ash pans, metallurgical furnaces, forges, slag dumps, etc. occupy a special place among archaeological objects for mock-ups. The remains of these industries have been studied at many Chimerian, Scythian, and early Slavic sites. Here are the most informative memos containing the remains of metallurgical production and related industries. At the settlement of Lymanske Lake of the Bondarykha culture, a raw-oak forge was found, attached to the wall of the dwelling as a shelter. This is a typical blacksmith’s metallurgical workshop, which can be subjected to a graphic reconstruction and reproduced in a museum exhibition. An oval raw-hearth furnace was discovered at the Sharpov settlement of the Scythian era. A device for slag release was traced, which is the most ancient in Ukraine (the 6th century). Thus, among the Scythians, two types of horns can be traced. The first species has two subspecies. The first subspecies are round forges deepened into the ground and the second subspecies are ground round or oval forges up to 1 m in diameter. Thus, the creation of models of metallurgical and other industries for the archaeological exposition of historical museums is an important component of creating strong museum communication. Due to the absence or impossibility of transferring the monument to the skansen, a full-scale model is the only way to convey outstanding archaeological monuments to visitors.
контекстуальне макетування, пізня бронза, скіфи, металургія, металообробка, стаття, contextually mock-up, bronze, scythian, metallurgy, metalworking
Пустовалов С. Ж. Раннє металургійне виробництво на теренах України в експозиції музеїв / Сергій Пустовалов, Любов Чухрай // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Історія і теорія культури. - 2022. - Т. 5. - С. 54-60. - https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.54-60