Проблеми відтворення в макетах визначних археологічних пам'яток України

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Чухрай, Любов
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Статтю присвячено проблемам методики створення в музеях макетів визначних археологічних пам’яток України та окремого музею макетів. Розглянуто засади та послідовність виготовлення макетів, їхні особливості для різних епох та призначення. Головними чинниками створення макета є ступінь унікальності пам’ятки, їхня достатня, краще повна вивченість, необхідні музейні площі під макет, оптимальний масштаб для глядача, пора року, що відповідає події. Макет має бути створений на основі точних карт місцевості, результатів розкопок, з довготривалих матеріалів.
The article covers problems of a miniature creation technique for outstanding archaeological sites exhibited within museums and specific miniature museum projects. Rich archaeological heritage of Ukraine is presented in expositions with various findings. Numerous photos, models, and tools are exhibited together with physical artefacts. Archaeological sites could be rarely found within exhibits. Primarily, these miniatures are exhibited within one of the central marquees. Not all archaeological sites can be moved to skansens or reproduced in-situ. Miniatures are used for a long period in expositions. However, the role of the miniatures in the exhibition and special analysis have not been yet discussed in the museum literature. The quality of the miniature depends on the experience and background of the architects of the models. Kyiv view during Yaroslav the Wise exhibited in the National Historical Museum of Ukraine; a miniature of Volodymyr the Great’s town exhibited in the Archaeological museum of Archaeology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences; miniature of ancient Vyshgorod exhibited in Vyshgorod historical museum are examples of scientifically exact and highly artistic miniatures at the same time. However, they are rarely exhibited in museums. A substantial amount of archaeological sites defy modelling, although are worth it. Museums remain responsible for creating miniatures of archaeological sites. Requirements should be defined as no specific methods or recommendations exist. First, the most significant archaeological sites should be miniatured; in particular, those are archaeological sites of general national importance. Second, sites should be either fully or mostly investigated. Third, the choice of the miniature scale should depend on the museum capacity, the space which can be used for exhibiting the miniature. The size of people’s figures, which should be a part of the miniature, is the determining parameter in miniature scaling. Miniature apart from people and environment is less accurate, less impressive, and less attractive. Fourth, cardboard plates and other materials can be used as a base of a miniature. The relief may be reproduced in plaster. Fifth, the exhibition season should correspond to the reconstructed event for a better perception of the miniature. For instance, the conquest of Kyiv miniature should have a winter landscape, as this episode took place in winter of 1240. Christianization of Rus’ in Kyiv took place in summer of 988, so green should dominate among the landscape colours. In-depth study of the archaeological monuments, research and creation of the detailed graphical reconstructions is the initial stage of the miniature creation. Reconstruction on the appropriate scale could be started only after this stage. A monument site excavations plan is the principle of individual objects arrangement. Creation of a model series, aiming to represent all stages of Ukrainian archaeological sites development, would be necessary. In future, the question of creating museums with the archaeological sites miniatures which are impossible to reproduce in skansens, could be raised. The most promising type of museum for reproduced monuments of the Ancient Culture is skansen. These types of museums should exhibit miniatures of the monuments which are impossible to be reproduced at their real location. There can also be reproduced copies of monuments which have not been saved in time due to some reasons.
археологічна пам'ятка, макет, музейна експозиція, атрактивність, archaeological site, miniature, museum exhibition, attractiveness
Чухрай Любов Олександрівна. Проблеми відтворення в макетах визначних археологічних пам'яток України / Чухрай Л. О. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Теорія та історія культури. - 2017. - Т. 191. - С. 90-94.