Комунікативна тактика позиціонування в українськомовному маркетинговому дискурсі

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Кліщевська, Майя
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У статті здійснено аналіз понять комунікативної тактики, схарактеризовано білінгвальність комунікативної тактики у текстах українськомовного маркетингового дискурсу на матеріалі українських веб-ресурсів.
Most recently, the evolution of human society has brought about the major changes in the initiation of communication processes and an eruptive revolution of information and communication technologies. At present, Ukrainian-language marketing discourse represents a separate communicative milieu made up of oral and written varieties with various characteristics regarding their genres and styles. Well-known Ukrainian linguists, such as F. S. Batsevych, A. D. Bielova, T. R. Kyiak, V. I. Karazyk, K. Ia. Kusko, H. H. Pocheptsov, O. O. Selivanova or N. V. Slukhai, as well as international scholars such as J. Searle, J. Austin, E. Burn, T. van Dijk, or E. Gross have examined and described specific elements of the theory of verbal communication, of the text as a tool of communication, and the role of discourse in the systems of modern communication. Purpose. In this study, we are examining communication tactics in texts that belong to the sphere of Ukrainian-language marketing discourse, largely referring to Ukrainian web resources. We aim to offer a multifaceted study of communication acts, their strategies, and tactics, particularly inasmuch as they are realized in the sphere of the Internet communication. The study refers to those current trends in linguistics that pay increasing attention to the search of models which describe mechanisms of the impact exerted on addressees in the course of verbal communication. Methods. Our largely descriptive study is based on two methods of the external interpretation of marketing discourse, namely the sociological and the logical-psychological approach. Sociological approaches enable us to shed light on the normative, stylistic and historical aspects of marketing discourse as well as the study of its lexical makeup, etc. One of the approaches that are particularly useful with regard to the study of Ukrainian marketing discourse, with its plethora of English and American loans, is that of “Words and Things” (“Wörter und Sachen” as introduced by H. Schuchardt and R. Mehringer), which is interested in the history of words combined with the signified concepts and extralinguistic objects and notions that they refer to. Logical-psychological approaches are interesting for us inasmuch as they help examin the semantic connection of linguistic units and mental categories (the interrelation of the word and the signified, the sentence and the proposition, topic and comment (rheme) structures, semantic deep structures of sentences, utterances, and texts). Results. Regarding pragmatic aspects, the sender (speaker, or, in our context, the marketing expert) uses linguistic codes to steer the process of marketing communication while preparing and initiating it, controlling its duration and finalization, the schemes of interaction with the addressee, and the topics. Inasmuch as all participants of marketing communication are persons with particular social, psychological, cognitive, and ideological characteristics, the communication tactics of positioning as practiced in marketing discourse aims to exert impact on the “standpoints” of clients to the benefit of various organizations or enterprises. The clients’ “standpoints” are largely based on models of “empathy” to which the addressees ascribe cognitive and emotional meaning to the information that has been to a significant degree shaped by marketing experts. A crucial problem of marketing discourse is the search for “a common language” as a marker of successful dialogical (or, in some cases, monological) cooperation: the selection of linguistic items that are most appropriate for rendering the necessary information; the selection of the appropriate “tone”, and the creation of an atmosphere that supports the interaction between the participants of communication. One of the most characteristic features of Ukrainian marketing discourse and its communication tactics of positioning is the use of the Russian language, which to a great degree continues former Soviet language practices. As large parts of the Russianized population of Ukraine - mostly that of larger cities - are used to Russian professional jargons in the sphere of business, Ukrainian marketing experts often develop specific bilingual communication tactics in marketing discourse. Aside from those problems of bilingualism, marketing experts are generally interested in manipulating their clients, and they are well aware of the fact that their efficiency depends on their command of the laws and technologies of manipulative communication (which is an inevitable and not necessarily negative element of marketing communication). Cognitive linguistics studies the interrelations between cognitive and linguistic structures; it also examines in which ways the language is used to achieve efficiency in strategies of positioning. In our study, we use cognitive models to describe the specific features of Ukrainian marketing discourse and its manipulative aspects. Discussion. The study aims to describe the theoretical and methodological foundations of the conceptual principles that are characteristic of efficient communication strategies and tactics in marketing discourse. Efficiency in marketing discourse is based on communication strategies of positioning and their linguistic realization. Marketing experts work on efficient ways of preparing their interaction with clients (suggesting dialogue-oriented propositions that are based on feedback relations), initiating this interaction (in selecting appropriate linguistic items that influence the course of communication in pragmatic ways), trying to control the duration of the interaction (depending on specific purposes, marketing programs, and commercial projects), and finalizing this interaction (aiming at successfully accomplishing the marketing actions). They attempt to exert impact on further mechanisms of interrelation with their addressees (depending on the efficiency of their communication and the programs of their commercial projects) and to retain their topic in broader discourse structures with an eye to ongoing marketing processes (this is one of the general aims of many marketing projects). In our study, we describe the specifics of these general features in Ukrainian marketing discourse and focus on its bilingual aspects.
комунікативна лінгвістика, комунікативна тактика, тактика позиціонування, українськомовний маркетинговий дискурс, стаття, communicative linguistics, communication tactics, tactics of positioning, Ukrainian-language marketing discourse
Кліщевська Майя. Комунікативна тактика позиціонування в українськомовному маркетинговому дискурсі / Майя Кліщевська // Мова : класичне - модерне - постмодерне : збірник наукових праць / відп. ред. В. Ожоган ; Нац. ун-т "Києво-Могилянська академія". - Київ : Дух і Літера, 2017. - Вип. 3. - С. 36-46.