Синонімія в українській мові і проблеми суржику (на прикладі синонімійного ряду зі значенням "мабуть")

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Дика, Людмила
Шведова, Марія
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У статті на базі основних лексикографічних праць ХІХ–ХХ ст., корпусу ГРАК, матеріалів Атласу української мови, діалектних хрестоматій тощо здійснено зіставний лексикографічний синхронно-діахронний аналіз значень лексеми ‘мабуть’; на прикладі конкуренції ‘мабуть/навєрно’ розглянуто причини, що сприяють затриманню в сучасному розмовному мовленні чужих елементів.
Background. In Ukrainian, the parenthetical modifier mabut’ ‘probably’ has more than 20 synonymous constructions and thus counts among lexical units with largests sets of synonyms. At the same time, in colloquial speech, mabut’ is often replaced by navjerno, which comes from Russian. Replacement of inherited lexicon with borrowings was related to the respective language policy and political situation. Сontribution to the research field. The paper discusses the reasons that contribute to the retention of foreign elements in modern colloquial speech in the case of competition mabut’/navjerno; such studies are important from the point of view of studying the interaction between the literary language and other varieties of the national language, as well as identifying the ingredients of surzhуk. Purpose. In this paper we are going to trace the use of lexeme mabut’ in the lexicographic, literary and spoken practice of the 19–21st centuries and to clarify the reasons behind the displacement of the inherited word by a foreign one in colloquial use. Methods. Using major lexicographic works of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, corpora, materials of the Atlas of the Ukrainian Language, dialect textbooks, etc., a comparative lexicographic synchronic-diachronic analysis of the meanings of lexeme mabut’ is carried out, the geography of distribution of mabut’ and its synonyms is traced. Results. The competition between mabut’ and naverno is analysed taking into consideration all the meanings of mabut’ witnessed in dictionaries of different periods, its synonyms and attestations in the Ukrainian dialects and standard-oriented written practice. The closest synonyms in the early 20th-century dictionaries are lybon’, pevne, des’, in the Soviet-era dictionaries, respectivеly, pevno and očevydno. In the dialects, the form mabut’ prevails in the southeastern dialects with numerous phonetic variants; in the southwestern dialects lexical synonyms abound. A dialect of the Masheve village of the Chernobyl districts exhibits semantically close synonyms mabut’, vidno, može, novjerno. Discussion. Discussion. Navjerno, an element of surzhyk, in many contexts is an absolute synonym of mabut’. The use of navjerno in the early 20th century texts as a stylistic means and its attestation in the Atlas of the Ukrainian language and modern dialects are arguments for an early borrowing into Ukrainian. A great variety of phonetic variants of mabut’ and limited functional sphere of the standard language precluded entrenchment of a single standard lexical unit in everyday speech. Recent texts show that the borrowing is being supplanted by the inherited Ukrainian mabut’.
вставні слова, модальність, лексикографія, суржик, мовна політика, діалектна мова, Генеральний регіонально анотований корпус української мови, стаття, parenthetical modifiers, synonyms, lexicography, surzhyk, language policy, dialectal language, General regionally annotated corpus of Ukrainian
Дика Л. В. Синонімія в українській мові і проблеми суржику (на прикладі синонімійного ряду зі значенням "мабуть") / Людмила Дика (Liudmyla Dyka), Марія Шведова (Maria Shvedova) // Мова: класичне - модерне - постмодерне. - 2023. - Вип. 9. - С. 50-71. - https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2023.9.50-71