Інституційні засади регулювання ґендерних відносин

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Марценюк, Тамара
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Автореферат дисертації дослідниці показує як розроблено інституційну модель дослідження і регулювання ґендерних відносин у Швеції та Україні, складовими якої є інституції політики, держави, освіти, науки, ЗМІ, неурядові організації. У шведському суспільстві проаналізовано ефективне регулювання ґендерних відносин, яке ґрунтується на цінності ґендерної рівності. На прикладі Ґетеборзького університету показано варіативність досліджуваної ґендерної тематики та її важливість для покращення стану ґендерних відносин у країні. Емпірично доведено домінування патріархатних відносин в українському суспільстві, продемонстровано наявність дискримінації у різних його сферах. Обговорено необхідність використання соціологічних досліджень задля ефективності процесу регулювання ґендерних відносин і моніторингу його результатів.
Thesis for Candidate’s Degree in Sociology, specialization 22.00.03 – Social Structures and Social Relations. – Institute of Sociology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2009. Institutional model of research and regulation of gender relations in Sweden and Ukraine is developed in this dissertation. The main parts of the model are the following: firstly, institutions of politics, state, education, science, media, and cooperation between them; secondly, mediators (like women’s non-governmental organizations in Ukrainian model and women’s movement in Swedish model); and links between all these elements. Comparative analysis as wide-known methodology in gender research is used in this thesis. In order to explore the institutional fundamentals of regulation of gender relations in Ukraine we studied Swedish experience of the effective process of gender equality implementation. Sweden is one of the leading countries in the world in covering gender gap. According to Gender Gap Report 2007 Sweden has the best position in the world covering 80% of gender gap in four main social spheres: politics, economics, education, and health. It is also important to underline that women’s movement in Sweden influenced a lot in solving gender issues and implementing gender politics (together with main actors in the institutions of politics and state). In Ukraine, on the contrary, there is any consolidate women’s movement to protect women’s rights especially in political and economic spheres. Moreover, gender politics in Sweden is based on the sociological research which aims to improve gender situation in the country. Important gender issues (like domestic violence, women on the labor market and involvement of fathers in the process of taking care for children) are put on the political agenda and analyzed. New concepts (intersectionality, diversity, heteronormativity, metronormativity) have been recently introduced into Swedish gender research. In Sweden there are approximately twenty gender centers in the universities all over the country. Moreover, in Swedish Academia, interdisciplinary gender research is widespread in almost all departments of social sciences and humanities. The Swedish statistical bureau provides "gender sensitive" data for main spheres of Swedish society. Gothenburg University is analyzed as case study to present variety of social gender research and possibilities of their implementations. It is concluded that sociological research is an important aspect of the complex process of gender relations regulation. The dissertation also examines the most relevant gender problems of independent Ukraine that as a post-Soviet country has been in the active process of transformation to a democratic society. The latest achievements in gender politics in Ukraine are discussed (Law "On Ensuring Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men", "State Program on Ensuring Gender Equality in Ukrainian Society for a period till 2010"). But the process of regulation of gender relations in Ukraine is not proved to be effective. Main gender problems in Ukrainian society are discussed and patriarchal attitudes of Ukrainian society are proved empirically. Well-educated and actively involved in labor market, Ukrainian women are almost excluded from political life in the country. In order to understand better contemporary gender situation in Ukraine, Soviet gender system and gender contracts are analyzed. The Soviet gender contract of the working mother still remains wide-spread for the Ukrainian society but are certainly extended, modified, or divided into businesswoman and housewife gender contracts. The male dominance in the public sphere, nowadays, has become more visible and crucial. The contravention between gender politics and the results of gender research are discussed (particularly with the example of gender party quotas implementations). Results of public opinion surveys of Ukrainian society shows that during 2005-2008 years approximately 40-50% of adult Ukrainians support the idea of gender party quotas in Verkhovna Rada. On the contrary, any political force supports the idea of the affirmative actions. So, the role of sociological gender research for aappropriate political decisions is discussed. Finally, it is concluded that to have effective process of gender relations regulation, it is appropriate to use particular set of institutional fundamentals: to engage main institutions (like state, politics, education, science, media), to conduct institutional innovations based on the value of gender equality, and to establish links between institutions and other main actors of the gender relations regulation and research.
ґендерні відносини, інституційна модель, ґендерна рівність, українське суспільство, шведське суспільство, гендерные отношения, институционная модель, гендерное равенство, украинское общество, шведское общество, gender relations, institutional model, gender equality, Ukrainian society, Swedish society, автореферат дисертації
Марценюк Т. О. Інституційні засади регулювання ґендерних відносин : автореф. дис. ... канд. соціол. наук / Марценюк Тамара Олегівна ; Ін-т соціології Нац. академії наук України. - К. : [б.в.], 2009. - 17 с.