Державні засади Гетьманщини і російський абсолютизм на рубежі XVII-XVIII ст.

Thumbnail Image
Щербак, Віталій
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
У статті здійснено аналіз державних засад Війська Запорозького, сформованих у ході Визвольної війни середини XVII ст. Акцентовано увагу на їх трансформації під час «Руїни» під впливом положень «статей», які укладалися з Московією. На рубежі XVII–XVIIІ ст. в останній формується абсолютистська форма правління, що позначилося на відносинах із Гетьманщиною. Російська імперська влада взяла курс на ліквідацію Української держави, яка не змогла цьому протистояти.
During the Liberation War of 1648–1657, the revival of Ukrainian state as a successor of the Princely Rus took place. Formation of its main principles during the war led to an internal conflict and the failure to conduct the foreign policy. Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky began to gradually incline to the idea of the hereditary power in Ukraine and establishment of a monarchical form of government that met Europe’s leading trends of the early-modern political space. In the second half of the 17th century, Cossack Army political system experienced radical transformations in which the governing regime acquired the authoritarian traits under the influence of various factors. Public legal status of Hetman state in this period is the most determined in “Hlukhivsky articles” in 1669. They became a political compromise between Ukrainian officers and Moscow kingdom demoralized by the prolonged armed conflict. The political system of Ukraine passed severe tests during the Great Northern War, with the formation of absolutism in the Russian state at the background. Victory over the Swedes near Poltava in 1709 enabled King Peter to intervene in the Ukrainian affairs through his resident at Hetman court. His official powers included surveillance after activities of the Ukrainian ruler and control of the foreign policy of I. Skoropadsky. Part of the Cossacks who moved to the territory of the Ottoman Empire tried to review the political system in Ukraine after Ivan Mazepa’s death. The Hetman’s closest supporters, especially the younger generation of Cossack officers, were inclined to accept new ideas of European politicians, declared by ideologists of early bourgeois revolutions. The main text of “Pylyp Orlyk’s Constitution” proclaimed the principles of building a sovereign Ukrainian state under the nominal patronage of the Swedish king. However, the project was not implemented. Meanwhile, strengthening position of the Russian tsar led to the crystallization of imperial regime, which Hetman state was unable to resist.
Гетьманщина, державні засади, гетьман, Росія, абсолютизм, Hetmanate, state foundations, Hetman, Russia, absolutism, стаття
Щербак Віталій Олексійович. Державні засади Гетьманщини і російський абсолютизм на рубежі XVII-XVIII ст. / Щербак В. О. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Історичні науки. - 2017. - Т. 194. - С. 26-31.