Ще раз про стоїцизм Лесі Українки (на матеріалі ранньої лірики)

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Шалагінов, Борис
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Ранню лірику Лесі Українки проаналізовано з урахуванням її боротьби з невиліковною недугою під кутом зору етики подолання – стоїцизму. В цьому вона повністю належить епосі пізнього модерну, однак суттєво відрізняється від декадентства з його культом хвороби, смерті, зів’янення та віддаленістю від соціальних проблем, а також від постмодерну з його етичними симулякрами. Зроблено наголос на органічному характері такого стоїцизму, який був не тільки поетичною темою, а й життєвою позицією поетеси. Простежено точки дотику з етикою Канта, Фіхте, Ніцше, Сартра та ін. Поетичні приклади розглянуто в плані запропонованого нами поетичного мотиву excelsior ("вище і далі").
Lesia Ukrainka’s early lyrics are analyzed from the point of view of the ethics of overcoming – Stoicism, taking into account her struggle with an incurable disease. In this they belong entirely to the epoch of late modernism, but also differ significantly from decadence, with its cult of sickness, death, withering, and remoteness from social problems, as well as from postmodernism, with its ethical simulacra. Emphasis is placed on the organic nature of such stoicism, which was not only a poetic theme, but also the life position of the poet. Poetic examples are considered in terms of a proposed poetic motif – excelsior ("above and beyond"). Traces of contact with the ethics of Kant, Fichte, Nietzsche, Sartre, and others can be traced. Lesia Ukrainka, for whom there were no happy or unhappy historical epochs, unlike for the “fatalists” O. Spengler or M. Berdiaev, believed that each epoch, being tragic, at the same time stimulates the manifestation of the power of the human spirit in spite of insurmountable circumstances. In her dramas, individuals seek harmony and homeostasis with their epoch, in order to, based on their resistance, discover and strengthen their "I". We define Lesia Ukrainka’s worldview as pan-Stoicism. The idea of internal self-determination always remains for the poetess the initial authorial position, the "regulatory principle" (I. Kant). This constitutes Lesia Ukrainka’s historical optimism. A connection with the philosophy of the German Romantics exists, in particular J. G. Fichte, with his main activity postulate as the main criterion of his own identity; at the same time, a person must set a distant high goal and thus consciously create a difficult obstacle and overcome it. Such an ethic of self-overcoming on the verge of the impossible is present in the poetess on a higher level than, for example, in J.-P. Sartre, according to whom a person discovers the abilities of one’s own spirit only when accidentally the will of circumstances puts a person in a passive position in relation to an obstacle; moreover, it is not about a high and worthy goal, for which all this must be done. Thus, in Lesia Ukrainka’s work, not just a "neo-romanticism" is formed, but a much more complex phenomenon, which we formulate as a completely original version of Ukrainian existentialism. We find in it organically fused elements of inherited German philosophy and humanism, elements of the philosophy of the same Nietzsche and elements of Stoicism, which fed the entire Ukrainian national liberation movement.
модерн, лірика, хвороба, стоїцизм, поетичний мотив, excelsior, Кант, Фіхте, Ніцше, Сартр, стаття, modernism, poetry, poetic motif, excelsior, disease, stoicism, existentialism, Kant, Fichte, Nietzsche, Sartre
Шалагінов Б. Б. Ще раз про стоїцизм Лесі Українки (на матеріалі ранньої лірики) / Шалагінов Б. Б. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Літературознавство. - 2022. - Т. 3. - С. 129-135. - https://doi.org/10.18523/2618-0537.2022.3.129-135