Образний ряд карпато-мікенського орнаментального стилю

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Отрощенко, Віталій
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Стаття є спробою виявити та здійснити аналіз системи образів карпато-мікенського орнаментального стилю (ІІ тис. до РХ). Зародження стилю пов’язане з кланами воїнів-колісничих, які сформувалися на межі ІІІ–ІІ тис. до РХ в спільнотах скотарів Степу. Базові елементи стилю відбивають протистояння сил Світла (солярна символіка) й Пітьми (образ змія/дракона). На дуалізмі побудовані епічні міфи індоіранських племен. Сюжети міфів дають змогу вийти на семантику мотивів та образів стилю, відтворених на стелах, атрибутах влади (клейнодах), деталях кінської вузди, зброї, побутових речах та прикрасах.
The article presents an attempt of identifying and analyzing the system of images of the Carpathian- Mycenaean ornamental style common in the second millennium BC in the East Mediterranean, Balkan- Carpathian region, and the South of the Eastern Europe. The origin of the style is associated with charismatic clans of chariot warriors that appeared between the third and second millennium BC among the steppe cattle breeders. The earliest manifestations of the style are recorded on the parts of horse harness bridle – such as cheek pieces, belt plaques, buttons – and on the attributes of power, such as sticks, whips, and handles of mace heads. Further instances of this style are recognized on marble stelae, ceremonial weapons, and jewelry. Within the borders of Ukraine such artifacts were revealed in settlements and in graves of the Timber-Grave community and among the items of the Bessarabian (Borodino) treasure that is synchronous to the Mycenaean mine tombs discovered by H. Schliemann in 1876. Hence the first name of this style has been coined as Mycenaean wave. Bronze Age carvers created decorative compositions with the use of a cutter and divider. Circles, swirl swastikas, spirals, meanders, rhythmic “waves” are predominate among the decorative elements. These allow to enter the system of images of the style, that is the variations of motives of the Sun (solar symbols) and the Snake (wave signs) in their dynamics. The basic elements of the style reflect the dialectical unity of confronting forces of the Light (solar symbols) and the Darkness (images of serpent / dragon). Epic myths of the Indo-Iranian tribes are built on this dual canvas. The storylines of myths and their replica in the Bronze Age art make it possible to determine the semantics of motives and images of the style. The anthropomorphic marble stele from the shrine of Razlog in Bulgaria represents the key to understanding the images of the style. A fight between the anthropomorphic hero wearing a Mycenaean protective armor and the serpent-dragon was depicted there against the background of a wave and solar motifs. The end result of this fight should be creation of an ideal world whose image is probably embodied in an engraving on the cane from the settlement of Kapitanove-I in Luhansk region.
образ досконалого світу, тема змієборства, змія / дракона, образи Сонця, мікенська хвиля, image of an ideal world, the theme of Dragon winner, serpent / dragon, the icons of Sun, the mycenaean wave
Отрощенко Віталій Васильович. Образний ряд карпато-мікенського орнаментального стилю / Отрощенко В. В. // Магістеріум. - 2017. - Вип. 67 : Археологічні студії. - С. 43-53.