Чинники батьківського стресу батьків, які виховують дитину з розладами аутистичного спектра

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Якнюнас, Єлизавета
Гусак, Наталія
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У статті наведено результати вивчення батьківського стресу у членів подружжя, що виховують дитину з аутизмом; проаналізовано результати зарубіжних досліджень; визначено Індекс батьківського стресу за результатами опитування батьків 121 дитини з аутизмом в Україні; описано три групи чинників (особистісні характеристики дитини, характеристики батьків, навколишнє середовище), пов'язані з батьківським стресом, на основі аналізу зарубіжних публікацій та емпіричного дослідження, проведеного авторами.
The article describes parental stress in families who have children with autism spectrum disorder. Parents of children with autism report stress more often than the parents who have children with other developmental disorders. The article explains three main groups of factors related to the parental stress. Firstly, characteristics of a child, which include gender, severity of symptoms, externalizing and internalizing disruptive behaviour, and food selectivity. Secondly, characteristics of the parents, which include their gender, age, family status, occupation, self-estimation of their role as a parent, parenting style, awareness of the phenomenon of autism, and the level of psychological acceptance, adaptation to new circumstances, coping strategies, and intense partnership. Thirdly, social and environmental circumstances, which include social support, family relationships including extended families, health care services, and child entering into the educational space. In Ukraine, parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have an average or increased level of stress. It affects their lives, physical and mental health, as well as that of their children. Parental stress is increased by destructive behaviour of a child; inefficient coping strategies of parents, doubts about their own competence in care; difficulties they meet in control of their lives; a lack of material and intangible support; a negative experience of interaction with health care workers, including pressure and disrespect on their part; a lack of skilled care for children and parents. According to foreign research, the authors of the article understand parental stress as a complex one, which refers to psychological, medical, and social issues. They underline that only a complex approach to the problem solving can improve the quality of life for the families who have children with autism spectrum disorder. Those parents who show psychological acceptance and adaptation to new circumstances, effective coping strategies, who can receive advice and support from other family members and friends can deal with parental stress, build strong "parent-child" relationships, and be satisfied in the role of a parent.
батьківський стрес, чинники стресу, розлади аутистичного спектра, стаття, parental stress, stress factors, autism spectrum disorder
Якнюнас Є. Є. Чинники батьківського стресу батьків, які виховують дитину з розладами аутистичного спектра / Якнюнас Є. Є., Гусак Н. Є. // Психологія та психосоціальні інтервенції : науковий журнал. - 2019. - Т. 2. - С. 67-74.