Новітні підходи та методики в науковому археологічному пам'яткознавстві Овруцького проекту

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Томашевський, Андрій
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Розвиток наукових досліджень та методологічних і методичних розробок в Овруцькому проекті відкрив можливість сформулювати основні положення та підходи до розробки наукового археологічного пам’яткознавства. В статті стисло викладена структура та смислові взаємозв’язки між складовими сучасного археологічного пам’яткознавства. Окреслені передумови, умови, засадничі підходи та ключові особливості наукового археологічного пам’яткознавства, сформульовані та апробовані в Овруцькому проекті.
The achieved and constantly growing parameters of the degree of archaeological research in the Ovruch project have made it relevant and necessary to the methodological and methodical generalize mechanisms and analytical perspectives of the research process itself. It has finally become clear that practically all the main research, record-keeping, analytical, scientific and practical blocks of the project programs are also part of a current comprehended modern scientific archaeological monument study (SAMS). Scientific archaeological monument studies as the core and basis of archaeological source studies. Scientific archaeological monumentology in this version, format and depth of study should inevitably become the core of archaeological methodology and methods. The article presents 10 sections — directions of SAMS. 1. The parameterized history of the discovery, study, mapping and recording of specific archaeological monuments (sites) of the relevant historical social organism (ISO). 2. Registration, recording, analysis of archaeological monuments in a universal database integrated with a GIS map. 3. Modern methods and procedures for effective mass non-invasive detection and study of archaeological monuments. Varieties of archaeological exploration, surveys, visits, monitoring, and predictive modeling. 4. General archaeological survey: problems, principles, methods, prospects. 5. Development of scientific and organizational foundations, principles, conditions and methods for the implementation of the National Program of Archaeological Survey of Ukraine. Defining comprehensive programs in the core of scien scientific archaeological monument studies: 6. The degree of archaeological research (DAR); a set of operations for its study, definition and evaluation. 7. Archaeological potential, its levels, types, methods of determination. Principles, tasks, methods, research procedures. 8. Five directions study of the fundamental issues of archaeological monumentation: a) Investigation of the time and circumstances of the emergence, stages and history of archaeological monuments (sites). b) Studying the stages, content of cognitive and logical losses and deformations (filters and gateways) on the way from discovery to final comprehension and publication of an archaeological monuments. c) Research on the problems of choosing the place of an ancient settlement, studying the multilayered monuments. d) Problems and tasks of studying the cultural layer of monuments. e) Archaeological monuments as capsules of time and ancient environment. 9. Research of risks and threats to archaeological sites, their classification and assessment. 10. Modern monument protection aspects of scientific archaeological monumentology. Problems and prospects in the light of the experience of the Ovruch project. The article also formulates and analyzes all the basic conditions, rerequisites, and fundamental principles of the emergence of the modern scientific archaeological monument study (SAMS) based on the experience and achievements of the Ovruch project. The role of long-term research projects devoted to the comprehensive study of historical social organisms of the past is considered. The basic principle is the spatial approach, the orientation of source studies to the archaeological monuments as the site of an ancient settlement. The condition and main factor for the deployment of the entire spectrum of SAMS is the achieved high degree of archaeological research (DAR). In this case, the main efforts are aimed at the most efficient mass detection, parameterization and registration of archaeological monuments. A detailed structured study of the geoposition of monuments opens up the possibility of studying the settlement system and economic use of nature at a fundamentally new level, and also forms the mechanisms of unprecedentedly effective predictive modeling and field search. The article comparatively analyzes the results of the implemented DAR and clearly demonstrates new horizons of knowledge and capabilities of methods obtained as a result of increasing the DAR by more than an order of magnitude. The possibilities and tasks of the complex of methods for studying and assessing the archaeological potential of the ISO territory are separately clearly characterized.
Овруцький проект, наукове археологічне пам’яткознавство, ступінь археологічної дослідженості, археологічний потенціал, історико-соціальний організм, Національна програма археологічного обстеження України, археологічна пам’ятка, методологія, методика, ризики, населений пункт, просторовий підхід, вивчення пам’яток, охорона пам’яток, стаття, Ovruch project, scientific archaeological monument study, degree of archaeological research, archaeological potential, historical social organism, National Program of Archaeological Survey of Ukraine, archaeological monument, methodology, method, risks, inhabited locality, spatial approach, monument study, monument protection
Томашевський А. П. Новітні підходи та методики в науковому археологічному пам'яткознавстві Овруцького проекту / А. П. Томашевський // Археологія і давня історія України. - 2023. - Вип. 4 (49). - С. 252-277. - https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2023.04.17