Українські археологи-нонконформісти тоталітарної доби

Thumbnail Image
Отрощенко, Віталій
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
У статті висвітлено прояви інтелектуального спротиву українських науковців-археологів радянській реальності у 20—80-х рр. ХХ ст., що мають ознаки нонконформізму.
The article is devoted to the study of manifestations of intellectual resistance of scientists to the ruling regime during 1920—80s, which has signs of non-conformism. The author considers the concept of “non-conformism”, based on the definition of the Russian human rights activist Yu. F. Lukin: in every society there are not only those who support the official policy, indifferent conformists, but also those who disagree, dissidents who oppose the dominant religion, ideology, the existing political system, a way of life. The topic of non-conformism in archaeology was substantiated by Russian thinker L. S. Klein, who included G. A. Bonch-Osmolovskyi, S. M. Zamyatnin, O. M. Rogachev, O. L. Mongait, G. B. Fedorov and A. S. Formozov among them. L. S. Klein should be added to them. Among the Ukrainian archaeologists of the totalitarian era, the personalities of M. O. Makarenko, V. P. Petrov (Domontovych), M. Yu. Braichevskyi, B. M. Mozolevskyi, S. N. Bratchenko attract attention. They represent four generations of native scholars who consistently carried the baton of resistance to the ruling regime until its logical collapse in 1991, which they had foreseen. They deliberately chose public forms of protest through speeches, statements, lectures, creation and distribution of resonant scientific texts in the country and abroad. An important role was played by communication with colleagues and students in the archaeological expeditions they led. In the system of total control created by the authorities, non-conformists quickly became the objects of close attention from the State Security Committee. The declassified archives of the special services shed light on the methods of their work with a contingent of people dangerous to the regime, including: study, recruitment attempts, prevention and repressive forms of influence, up to execution (the fate of M. O. Makarenko). All mentioned researchers had gone through the control system. B. M. Mozolevskyi was saved from arrest thanks to the Pectoral he found. The system did not allow revealing and realizing the powerful creative potential of deviant creators. This did not save it, and irreparable damage was done to science.
конформізм, нонконформізм, Микола Макаренко, Віктор Петров (Домонтович), Михайло Брайчевський, Борис Мозолевський, Станіслав Братченко, стаття, conformism, non-conformism, State Security Committee control, Mykola Makarenko, Viktor Petrov (Domontovych), Mykhailo Braichevskyi, Borys Mozolevskyi, Stanislav Bratchenko
Отрощенко В. В. Українські археологи-нонконформісти тоталітарної доби / В. В. Отрощенко // Археологія. - 2022. - № 3. - С. 131-146. -