Karlovice Treaty Of 1699: Reasons For That And Its Consequences
The study purpose - to analise the historical events which caused the conclusion of Karlovice Treaty and consideration of "the Ukrainian problem" in it, as well as the consequences of that one. The Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Muscovy tried to divide the Cossack- Hetmanic Ukraine. However, the military and political union with the Ottoman Empire valid in the beginning of the last quarter of the 17th century was an impediment for the implementation of those tries. As the steps aimed at the occupation of Ukrainian lands by the said states were opposed by the Ottoman Empire. Besides, the efficiency of that opposition depended directly on the international situation of the ally of the Cossack-Hetmanic Ukraine. But, as the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Sublime Porte lost their power, Muscovy increased its presence in Eastern Europe. Combined endeavors of the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth and those of the Swedish Kingdom in their struggling against the Tsardom of Muscovy in the beginning of the 18th century were also insufficient to stop completely the military and political activity of Muscovy because of the availability of acute contradictions between the above said enemies of the state. As for the Ottoman Empire is concerned, after signing Karlovice Treaty in 1699, despite the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth's suffering from running attacks of Muscovy, it kept on being in peace with Muscovy and even supported that one, "the Ukrainian problem" was unsettled, and it was very actual in the international policy of the Ottoman Empire. Hence, the purpose of this study is to interpret some data from Turkish- Ottoman and Ukrainian written sources, particularly from the historiography, which contain the principal aspects, as well as preconditions and consequences of separate events that took place during the respective historical process. The set up purpose of the study was achieved by studying the level of the Karlovice Treaty effect on the process of the international relations between the above aid countries and of rising of a geopolitical system in Eastern Europe. The study methodology is based on the principles of historism, objective analysis, interdisciplinary of making a study, identification of the authenticity and informational value of the identified data and facts, as well on the application of interpreting the respective historical events with taking into account the data available in Turkish- Ottoman and Ukrainian written sources and historiography. In the study there were applied methods of the historiographic, terminological, typological and comparativistic analyses. The scientific novelty of the study is a civilisational comprehension of the history of relations between the states-parties to Karlovice Treaty, and also that of "the Ukrainian problem" reflected in that treaty. The Treaty resulted in a rise of a new geopolitical system in Eastern Europe in general, and on the Balkans in particular.
the Balkans, geopolitics, Karlovice Treaty, international relations, Eastern Europe, article
Turanly Ferhad. Karlovice Treaty Of 1699: Reasons For That And Its Consequences / Ferhad Turanly // 2019 CIEES Skopje /North Macedonia. Congress of International Eastern European Studies (CIEES) : proceedings of the 3rd Congress of International Eastern European Studies "Concepts, Sources and Methodology in Eastern European Studies" / ed.: Serkan Yazici [et al.]. - Sakarya, 2019. - P. 395-420.