Символіка образу пса у прозі Сергія Жадана

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Уманець, Сніжана
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У статті розглянуто символ пса у прозі Сергія Жадана через зв’язок зі слов’янською міфологією. У творчості письменника ця символіка пов’язана з урбаністичними мотивами та неприкаяністю Жаданових персонажів. Найяскравіше символіка образу пса розкривається в останньому романі Жадана "Інтернат", де демонічні пси асоціюються зі смертю. Якщо звернутись до народних уявлень, то можна простежити, що собака завжди була амбівалентним символом, у якому поєднувалось добродійне й демонічне начала. Таку неоднозначність ми й бачимо у Жадана. Можна також провести паралель із символікою вовка, яка дуже тісно пов’язана з символікою собаки, – у фольклорі вовк знаменує щось чуже і потойбічне. Це підкреслює важливість концепту "свого/чужого" в письмі Сергія Жадана.
This article focuses on the symbolical meaning of the concept of a dog in the works of Serhii Zhadan, mainly in “Internat” and “Mesopotamia”. We can find this symbol as a synonym for “street”, frequently used as an epithet for Zhadan’s characters. The most important feature of the symbol of a dog is its ambivalence: it arises not only marking the hero of a novel but also as a sign that tells us that something evil will happen. The dog symbol is a symbol of death, as we can see it from “Mesapotamia” and “Internat”, where this correlation is the most obvious. There are two scenes in these books that in both cases illustrate the same theme, although with different ending. In “Mesopotamia”, the hero faces a bunch of outraged dogs that are ready to attack, but a woman rescues him. In “Internat’s” culmination, the hero tries to run away from dogs and death in his imagination and also in real life, and eventually succeeds. We can find the roots of such symbolism in mythology and folklore. The dog has always been a symbol of a friend, on the one hand, and something demonic, on the other. What is more, we should not forget about the connection between the symbol of a wolf and that of a dog, for they are sometimes very close. For instance, in folklore, the wolf has had a meaning of something that is behind the world of the living and has a connection to dead people, which corresponds perfectly with the symbol of the deathly dogs in “Internat”. In addition, a wolf in Slavic mythology signifies a foreign creature, the Others. The opposition of Self and the Other, which divides the world into “Mine” and “Foreign”, is crucial for understanding Serhii Zhadan’s novels. This opposition is also connected to the maleness and abandonment of his heroes. To sum up, the symbol of a dog in Zhadan’s works is ambivalent. It can be interpreted as a symbol of death and something mysterious, and also a concept important for a “Mine/Foreign” opposition.
Сергій Жадан, символ, пес, смерть, вовк, амбівалентність, стаття, Serhii Zhadan, symbol, dog, death, wolf, ambivalence
Уманець С. Символіка образу пса у прозі Сергія Жадана / Уманець С. О. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Літературознавство. - 2018. - Т. 1. - С. 110-113.