Water supply and water discharge: challenges and concept of responces - context of climate change and exhaustions of water resourcesWater supply and water discharge: [chapter book]
For a long time the natural water resources of Ukraine experienced a heavy anthropogenic pressure resulting in the negative environmental changes. The examples of such changes related to forecast of impact of possible tendencies of climate change are considered in this article. In 2015 year the general hydrological situation in the basins of the Ukrainian rivers and reservoirs was rather dangerous due to the smallest volume of water in the reservoirs over all the period of their exploitation. Such situation occured due to the complicated climate conditions (climate aridization), and consequent increased water consumption. The intensive water pollution by wastewater from industrial enterprises and municipal companies, wastewater from animal farms, surface run of snow melting as well as by rain waters contaminated by the different pollutants from the agricultural and urban areas, and exploitation of water transport make the situation in Ukraine even more complicated (DEFRA, 2010 Europe; European; Feyen, 2009). For the analyses of the long-term regional changes of climatic fields in Ukraine the empirical data of observations obtained from the network of meteorological stations were used. The semi-empirical models of transformation of annual and seasonal courses of climatic conditions (surface temperature change and precipitation) in Ukraine under the influence of global warming were developed. For comparison the climatic field of the annual and seasonal temperatures and the annual sum of precipitations for the Holocene Optimum were also used. The expected features of climate change and consequences for Ukraine were forecasted. The coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, the Carpathians, mountains of Crimea and steppe were recognized as the territory of Ukraine the most vulnerable to climate changes. The answer to this challenge should be a change in attitude to water: maximum economy, adequate pricing, termination of pollution, groundwater use, maximum treatment and swivel water use, recovery of natural rivers, lakes, flood plains, deltas, coastal zones, swamps and wetlands, reduction of the surface area of reservoirs. As new legal instrument the updated Water Code of Ukraine lined up to the European Union water legislation and the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment should be applied widely.
climate change, water resources, water supply, wastewater discharge, forecast and trends of the state of water resources, measures towards water policy in municipal sector
Water supply and water discharge : challenges and concept of responces - context of climate change and exhaustions of water resourcesWater supply and water discharge / Boychenko S., Havryliuk R., Movchan Ya., Tarasova O., Sharavara V., Savchenko S. // Water Supply and Wastewater Removal. - Lublin, 2016. - P. 3-14.