Державні соціальні допомоги: поняття, ознаки, основні види та тенденції розвитку

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Костюк, Віктор
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У цій статті розкрито концептуальні підходи до розуміння сутності, ознак, видів державних соціальних допомог. Наголошено на їх конституційно-правовій природі. Акцентовано увагу на те, що у системі соціальних реформ, ключове місце посідає пенсійна реформа та реформа соціальних допомог. Досліджено доктринальні підходи до розуміння державних соціальних допомог, відзначено важливість адекватного правового регулювання. Подано авторське визначення державних соціальних допомог, наведено основні ознаки та види. Зроблено висновки та пропозиції до законодавства.
In this article the conceptual approaches to the understanding of the nature, characteristics, types of social assistance. Emphasized their constitutional and legal nature. The attention to the fact that the system of social reform, the key takes place pension reform and reform of social benefits. Studied doctrinal approaches to understanding the state social benefits, noted the importance of adequate regulation. Theoretical and legal analysis of doctrinal approaches, allows to state that the term "State social assistance" should be considered in the broad and narrow sense. In a broad sense, the state social assistance - is all kinds of social benefits (including life scholarships, grants, subsidies, compensation and other payments to the social sector, etc.) that are assigned (provided) by authorized bodies by the state and / or local budgets in accordance with the applicable legislation and, in the narrow sense - a kind of social assistance provided to persons in cash (in cases stipulated by law families) who have experienced social risk authorized orga us government by the state and / or local budgets in the manner prescribed by the current. The main features of state social benefits include the following: type of social assistance that is cash; a one-time or temporary in nature; granted to persons who are not insured in the social insurance system, and in some cases families who have experienced social risk; subject mainly to legislative regulation; size is determined, usually a fixed amount or based on subsistence level; appointed authorized executive authority on social protection; appointed in the manner prescribed by law; subject to state supervision (control), public control. The main trends of improving state social benefits are as follows: first, the development of conceptual principles of reforming state social benefits, based on the need for state and dynamics of society and the state; Second, focus on universalization, targeting, accessibility model state social benefits; thirdly, the development of new law on state social benefits, including some of their species; Fourth, enhance efficiency, effectiveness and accessibility of the mechanisms of implementation, assurance, legal protection of the right to state social assistance and its individual species; Fifth, the improvement of social and legal status of certain categories of persons as eligible persons with the right to state social assistance; Sixth, to harmonize the cost of living to the objective needs of modern people (decent standard of living) and align the cost of living for disabled persons to the appropriate size for the working people; Seventh, to ensure optimal funding of state social benefits from the state and local budgets, based on a strategy of decentralization of power; Eighth, to develop effective mechanisms to implement international and European social standards on public social benefits; Ninth, mechanisms to enhance the accessibility of state aid in relation to certain categories of socially vulnerable persons; Tenth, to strengthen the mechanisms of state supervision (control), public oversight for state social benefits. In the context of current trends in the law on state social benefits, it seems appropriate to stress the importance of harmonization between relevant government institutions, local communities, civil society based on the system of public discussions, assessments, taking into account advances in science, scientific schools of social security law.
соціальний захист, соціальні допомоги, державні соціальні допомоги, соціальні ризики, прожитковий мінімум, Державний бюджет, місцеві бюджети, законодавство про державні соціальні допомоги, стаття, social protection, social benefits, State social assistance, social risks, cost of living, State budget, local governments, legislation on social assistance
Костюк В. Л. Державні соціальні допомоги: поняття, ознаки, основні види та тенденції розвитку / В. Л. Костюк // Часопис Національного університету "Острозька академія" : електронне наукове фахове видання. - Електронні дані. - Острог, 2015. - № 1 (15) : Серія "Право". – 18 с.