Елементи інтер'єру з поховальних споруд Скіфії
In ancient literature Scythians were shown as the harsh soldiers, who were inclined to asceticism. However, the range of finds from Scythian tombs is clearly not compatible with this view. The graves of aristocrats contained not only necessary in everyday life things, but also expensive imported things. This became particularly evident in the 5 – 4 cc. BC. Small series of pieces of furniture from the graves of Scythian elite members are among the luxury items. Furniture of these complexes has no variety of types. It is presented by stools, small benches and arm-chairs (or thrones). Stools prevail in the "Scythian" furniture series. We can divide a series of findings into two chronological groups. The early group consists of the objects from 6 kurgans. These are Litoi (or Melgunovsky) kurgan; Krivorozhsky kurgan; Kelermess 3/Sh; another one (?) from Kelermess’ group; a kurgan near Darievka manor; kurgan 20 in Holodny Yar locality. These items are dated from 7th to 5th c. BC. The late group is represented by the objects from 7 kurgans. These are two kurgans near V. Znamenka village (a kurgan excavated in 1884 and a kurgan n.13); Solokha kurgan; a kurgan n.2 near Zelenoye village; Vishnevaya Mogila; kurgan n.14 near Nosaki locality; Melitopolsky kurgan. These items are dated from 5th to 4th centuries BC. In the first group there are the objects of furniture with luxurious decor. The second group includes the more simple specimens. From all the variety of ancient Greek furniture examples the Scythians preferred the stools. The nomads used two species of them — the stools with the Xshaped and vertical legs. But specimens of the second type prevailed. Such situation probably can be explained by the mobile lifestyle of nomads. Relatively the gender of Scythians, who were buried with the pieces of furniture, we can notice the following tendency. In the first group the tombs belonged mostly to men. In the second group four graves belonged to men and two graves belonged to women (one of them was an Amazon). In addition the survey of findings showed that the furniture was placed in the graves of the royal family members, the aristocracy, the warlords and probably the soldiers who particularly distinguished themselves in a battle. It is noteworthy that the kurgans, where the objects of imported furniture were founded tend to important ancient arterial roads and key settlement structures near them. The furniture in the nomad burial complexes as the other items of urban civilization reflected the cultural impulses of Greek cities, which were absorbed the Scythian aristocracy.
Scythians, furniture, burials, Northern Black Sea Coast, article
Болтрик Ю. В. Елементи інтер'єру з поховальних споруд Скіфії / Юрій В. Болтрик, Олена Є. Фіалко // Vir Bimaris : od kujawskiego matecznika do stepów nadczarnomorskich : studia z dziejów międzymorza bałtycko-pontyjskiego ofiarowane Profesorowi Aleksandrowi Kośko / pod red. Marzeny Szmyt [et al.] ; Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. - Poznań : [Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu], 2019. - S. 557-584.