Працезатрати на зведення лісостепових городищ скіфського часу

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Крютченко, О.
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У статті здійснено спробу аналізу працезатрат на зведення захисних споруд лісостепових горо- дищ скіфського часу та порівняння їх із даними щодо житлових, господарчих та поховальних спо- руд. За результатами розрахунків встановлено можливість проведення таких будівельних робіт у короткий термін, хоча вони й були більш трудомісткими, ніж під час зведення господарчих споруд, жител чи поховальних конструкцій.
This article analyzes the amount of work needed for mounting fortification constructions on the hillforts of the Scythian forest-steppe. The volumes of different constructions (dwelling, farming, or funeral structures) were compared. Due to calculations, there is a probability of quite a high velocity of fortifications. But it should be noticed that the scope of fortification work was much greater than that of building houses or tombs. During the Scythian times, building fortification constructions took a long time. During building the workers were freed from agricultural and craft employments. Fortifications resulted from collective actions and were a significant marker of the progress of ancient societies. Building the fortifications requires a certain social and technical development level. Coordination of this construction was connected with a high level of social organization. A technically low-developed society cannot build such long defensive constructions. Mounting fortifications collectively was an important part of the Scythian’s everyday life in the forest-steppe area. The archaeologists discovered defence buildings around the hillforts. B. Shramko, A. Moruzhenko, V. Hrytsyk, I. Yefremov, and other archaeologists aimed to explore how the defence buildings were constructed. A. Moruzhenko was the first to try to calculate how big were labour expenses at the Belsk hillfort (the author of the field research at Belsk was B. Shramko). This article applies the formula for calculation of labour expenses. We use traditional standards for calculation of labour expenses for contemporary workers. In addition, historians and archaeologists calculate labour expenses for other historical periods (Cf. P. Rappoport’s studies). So, this paper presents a unique attempt to understand how easy or hard the labour was and what the social structure of the Scythian society was in the Ukrainian forest-steppe area. In addition, one of the main questions in this article is how rapid building was in the Scythian times. We know that the military situation was stressful. An enemy could assault any time. The question of speed was the question of survival.
захисні споруди, фортифікація городища, скіфський час, лісостеп, the settlement, the hillfort, fortification, the Scythian culture, forest-steppe
Крютченко О. О. Працезатрати на зведення лісостепових городищ скіфського часу / Крютченко О. О. // Магістеріум. - 2017. - Вип. 67 : Археологічні студії. - С. 60-65.