Креси: міфологічна ідентичність культурного пограниччя

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Демчук, Руслана
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У статі на прикладі україно-польського пограниччя аналізується феномен Кресів як універсальний архетип. Кресова спільність відображена у формування субкультури пограниччя, що характеризується специфічним етосом, іконосферою та міфологією. Ренесансний "сарматський" міф, який зазнав модифікації у Кресах, став тим ностальгічним міфом українського народу, що формував національну ідентичність.
The author studies the identity of the phenomenon of "sarmatism" (the Renaissance myth about Sarmatians’ origin of people who are mentioned in ancient sources) from the position of a nostalgic myth. The nostalgic myth refers to mnemotopes - the places of memory that are connected with cultural space. During the period of the Rzeczpospolita (The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), myths about the common origins of the Polish and the Ukrainian peoples were formulated in the "Sarmatian" discourse. In the times of Baroque and Romanticism, Polish Catholic writers glorified Ukraine in their works, which regionally belonged to "Kresy Wschodnie" (the Eastern Borderlands). Cultures of different peoples, that have approximately the same level of development, can have the ability of the open dialogue, the constant exchange of ideas and cultural texts inside of border territorial and (not only) state formations. The researchers accentuate the polyethnic and polyreligious subculture of Ukrainian-Polish borderlands. This standpoint is the most clearly represented in the Latin poem "Camoenae Borysthenides" (1618) by Jan Dombrovsky. In this Kyiv-centric poem, Kyiv is described as the capital of Sarmatia within the historical period from the legendary Prince Kyi and to the present times. Kresy are represented not only as a fact of historical geopolitics, they are a part of literature and mythophothetics. Landscapes of the Eastern Borderlands perform the functions of "places of common memory" and can discover the historical past. Consequently, Kresy should be considered as a universal archetype that has been developed into a "myth of Kresy" on the territory of the borderlands. That is why there is a large number of hidden Polish and Ukrainian identification toposes, primarily in the context of courage, chivalry and love for the Native Land. The Ukrainian "sarmatian people" are an ethnoconfessional community with the common historical origin, destiny, language, territory, which, however, existed on the borders of another state between the orderly political space and the chaos of the Great Steppe. The image of the Ukrainian Sarmatian was embodied in the form of a "knight". It did not demand a compulsory noble origin. The Ukrainian Sarmatian had to serve heroically on the defence of the fatherland from external enemies. After the co-opting to the Russian Empire, the "Sarmatian myth" was transformed into a "Khazar myth", which can be considered as a stage of development of the national "Cossack myth". Nowadays, the Ukrainian-Polish border (Kresy) should not be a barrier, but a bridge to a common European space.
Креси, україно-польське пограниччя, ідентичність, сарматський міф, стаття, identity, Kresy, Sarmatian myth, Ukrainian-Polish borderland
Демчук Р. Креси: міфологічна ідентичність культурного пограниччя / Р. В. Демчук // Вісник Маріупольського державного університету. Серія: Філософія, культурологія, соціологія / гол. ред. К. В. Балабанов. - Маріуполь : МДУ, 2017. - Вип. 14. - С. 82-93.