Стратегії розвитку підприємств машинобудування - світовий досвід та українські реалії

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Храпкіна, В.
Кожемякіна, Тетяна
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У статті проведено аналіз сучасного стану машинобудування України. Визначено існуючі проблеми розвитку галузі. Порівняні показники динаміки і структури виробництва на машинобудівних підприємствах України. Здійснено аналіз продуктивності праці на підприємствах України та країн-провідних гравців на світовому ринку машинобудування. Визначено стратегічні переваги кластерного розвитку галузі як основного двигуна зростання економіки України. Сформульовано основні стратегії розвитку, які можуть бути використані малими та середніми підприємствами машинобудування.
The current state of EI in Ukraine is analysed in the article. The existing problems of the industry are highlighted. The dynamics and structure of production of the machine-building enterprises of Ukraine are compared. Labour productivity of the Ukrainian enterprises and of the EU key players in the world market of EI are analysed. The strategic benefits of cluster development of the sector as the main engine of economic growth in Ukraine are determined. The basic development strategies that can be used by small and medium mаchine-building enterprises are formulated. During 2014-2016 the radical changes in EI connected primarily with reorientation of production from the market of the Russian Federation to other international markets were observed. This significantly affected the total production and sales. The key problem of EI, like all other industries in Ukraine, is low labour productivity and large problems with product quality. Therefore the peculiarity of the industry is that the competitive advantages of EI acquires then are transformed into the appropriate competitive advantages of the industries which buy these competitive means of production. From this perspective Ukrainian EI is very promising, because we have developed all of its subsectors that may become the basis to create competitive clusters Therefore, it is believed that any development strategy of mаchine-building enterprises should be aimed at creating a competitive core in the domestic industry and formatting with the reference on the basis of the cluster - regional or sectorial association of businesses. Such clusters have become centres of growth in Ukrainian economy. For small businesses in EI there are many interesting strategic opportunities. The experience of the European countries and, in particular, of the world leader in exports of engineering products - Germany, proves that most companies in the market are small businesses. Thus, the studies proves that EI is the leading sector of the economy of any developed country. On this basis, competitive national economy can be built, because the sectors of EI creates the capital goods used by companies in other industries as means of production. EI as a basis of the cluster is an effective solution for the rapid development of Ukrainian economy. Such development of the industry will allow to become less dependent on external markets, where more powerful players occupy leading positions and do not have any desire to take back seats. Also it will allow to reorientate EI complex of Ukraine from not friendly market of the Russian Federation to the markets of other countries of the world. Unfortunately, during recent years, domestic EI has not shown any positive dynamics in its development. The key challenges of the industry are: low labour productivity and poor quality of the products. First of all the attention of management of Ukrainian EI companies should be directed to manage these challenges. And these problems can be overcome only through radical restructuring. Also, the management of the companies have to learn new methods of strategic management and successfully apply them developing own growth strategies for major industrial productions and choosing between standard strategies when it comes to small or medium businesses that do not have opportunities to develop their own strategies.
машинобудування, стратегія, розвиток, експорт, реструктуризація, стаття, EI, strategy, development, exports, restructuring
Храпкіна В. В. Стратегії розвитку підприємств машинобудування - світовий досвід та українські реалії / В. В. Храпкіна, Т. В. Кожемякіна // Вісник Маріупольського державного університету. Серія: Економіка / гол. ред. К. В. Калабанов. - Маріуполь, 2017. - Вип. 13. - С. 14-24.