Антропологія поховальних комплексів культури кулястих амфор Білий потік та Озеряни на Тернопільщині

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Рудич, Тетяна
Козак, Олександра
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Наведено попередні результати антропологічного аналізу скелетних решток із поховальних комплексів культури кулястих амфор Білий Потік та Озеряни на Поділлі.
The remains of 8 individuals were identified in the Bilyi Potik and Ozeriany burial complexes discovered in 2020—2021. Five of them were identified as males and two as females. Some teeth of an elder child were also discovered. The paleopathological study revealed a set of diseases typical of the Ukrainian Globular Amphorae Culture (GAC). Among them are respiratory infections, middle ear closure, and traces of infections, possibly of zoonotic origin. The skull injuries are likely to be of domestic nature. In one case the traces of a healed trepanation were found. This operation has not been described in the GAC population before although it has been found in the Yamnaya culture and was widespread among the population of the Сatacomb culture of Ukraine. Given the complexity of population formation and the wide area of the culture, in order to identify anthropological connections of this small group of the Podillia population the morphological research was conducted. The most preserved male crania were reconstructed and analyzed by a craniological program. The skulls from the two sites appear to be morphologically similar. Nevertheless, this new material allows us to raise questions about the anthropological heterogeneity of the population of the eastern group of the GAC. Long and medium-long, high craniums characterize males from these sites. The shape of the skull vaults is mesocranial or brachycranial tending toward the mesocranial. There are no dolichocranial skulls forms in these samples. The faces of the males are low in absolute size; according to the upper-facial indexes, they fall into the category of broad-faced or medium-faced with a leaning toward broad-faced forms. The orbits are medium-high and low. Noses are narrow and medium-wide, with no broad forms. Based on craniological features, all the analyzed males belong to the large Caucasoid race, as well as other individuals from the burials of the GAC of Ukraine. According to the results of a comparative analysis with other individuals of this culture, the northwestern direction of anthropological relations is most clearly recorded in the studied individuals. Morphologically and statistically, the combined series of the Pomeranian (Pamariu, Rzucewo, Haffküstenkultur) culture of Lithuania and Prussia are the closest to the males from the Bilyi Potik and Ozeryany burial sites. To confirm our conclusions, we are awaiting the results of biochemical and genetic studies.
культура кулястих амфор України, Поділля, антропологія, краніологія, палеопатологія, стаття, Globular Amphorae Culture of Ukraine, Podillya, anthropology, craniology, palaeopathology
Рудич Т. О. Антропологія поховальних комплексів культури кулястих амфор Білий потік та Озеряни на Тернопільщині / Т. О. Рудич, О. Д. Козак // Археологія і давня історія України. - 2023. - Вип. 1 (46). - С. 116-126. - https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2023.01.06