Голодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні як злочин геноциду згідно з міжнародним правом: [розділ монографії]

dc.contributor.authorКрахмальова, Катерина
dc.description.abstract13 січня 2010 року Апеляційний суд міста Києва виніс постанову у кримінальній справі № 1-33/2010, якою було підтверджено, що Голодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні є геноцидом, тобто злочином, передбаченим ч. 1 ст. 442 Кримінального кодексу України, а також статтею II Конвенції ООН про запобігання злочину геноциду та покарання за нього, ратифікованою УРСР ще 22 липня 1954 року. Постанова стала актом величезної юридичної і громадянської ваги, поставивши крапку у правових спекуляціях на тему «Чи був Голодомор геноцидом?» та підсумувавши десятиліття відданої праці юристів, науковців, правозахисників, представників української діаспори та всіх небайдужих до найко- лосальнішої трагедії українського народу XX століття.uk_UA
dc.description.abstractIn January of 2010, the Appellate Court of Kyiv found that the 1932-1933 Holodomor in Ukraine constituted genocide, a crime under both international law and the national criminal law of Ukraine. Though the criminal proceedings were closed due to deaths of all seven of the identified perpetrators of the crime, questions concerning responsibility and providing compensation to surviving victims of the genocide in Ukraine remain. From the case materials and investigators' commentaries, it is clear that certain foreign entities, namely transnational corporations, were buying wheat from the Soviet government that had been forcefully taken away from starving Ukrainians. Can they be held responsible for these actions? In answering this question, the author examines both primary rules (obligations for subjects) and secondary rules (responsibility for breaches of such obligations) of international law on responsibility. This journey leads to the conclusion that, while it may technically be possible to hold states responsible for the actions of transnational corporations which have strong public components and legally meaningful bonds with national governments under a theory of attribution, or to punish corporations under the theory of complicity for violations of other human rights, the Genocide Convention makes it clear that under its provisions transnational corporations cannot be punished for genocide. In order to hold such corporations responsible for genocide, it would be necessary to adopt an international instrument, which imposes a direct obligation on transnational corporations to refrain from participating in any form of the commission of the act of genocide. Only then, when there is a primary rule of international law governing this obligation of TNCs, would it be possible to proceed to secondary rules establishing how exactly they will be held responsible. Therefore, contrary to the norm, national law seems to be more suitable than international law for addressing questions of responsibility of foreign entities and transnational corporations, and in particular, compensation, as it allows foreign nationals who were victims to bring such claims in domestic courts. Apart from purely legal questions about whether transnational or national corporations can be held responsible for participating in the Ukrainian genocide, it is also crucially important to determine whether the international community, foreign governments, and corporations knew about the Ukrainian Holodomor as it was occurring in 1932-1933, taking into account the strenuous efforts of Soviet government to hide the famine. Without such knowledge, it would be neither fair nor just to judge these entities. And last, but equally important, is the discovery and identification not only of those entities which knew about the tragedy and proceeded to benefit monetarily from it, but also of all those which tried to help and were prevented from doing so.en_US
dc.identifier.citationКрахмальова Катерина Олексіївна. Голодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні та питання відповідальності іноземних компаній / Катерина Крахмальова // Голодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні як злочин геноциду згідно з міжнародним правом. - 2016. - С. 188-204.uk_UA
dc.relation.sourceГолодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні як злочин геноциду згідно з міжнародним правомuk_UA
dc.statuspublished earlieruk_UA
dc.titleГолодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні як злочин геноциду згідно з міжнародним правом: [розділ монографії]uk_UA
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