Модифікація міфологеми "Храму-Града" у російській картині світу

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Демчук, Руслана
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У контексті нового культурологічного напрямку – "ієротопії" розглядається формування сакральних просторів на підставі втілення та адаптації новозавітної міфологеми "Храму-Града". На прикладі російської картини світу це виражено у формуванні архітектурного ядра Червоної площі Москви, побудови Воскресенського монастиря у Підмосков’ї, Соловецького монастиря на острові посеред Білого моря. Найбільш характерним проявом міфологеми та образом національної картини світу виступає легенда про незримий град Кітєж. Поети-символісти революційної доби ототожнювали Кітєж з образом світлого комуністичного майбутнього. Таким чином, провідною інтенцією російської думки було шукання та очікування казкового царства, здійсненого на землі як алюзія апокаліптичного Храму-Града.
The mythologeme of «Temple-City» was formulated in “The Revelation” by John the Apostle. The apocalyptic «Temple of the Future» has prototypes all over the world, that has recreated sacred space at different times and among different cultures. The most famous is Jerusalem in Palestine. Studies of the organization and functioning of sacred spaces is engaged in the field of cultural studies – hierotopia. This article presents the hierotropic analysis of the Russian vision of the world, which is characterized by certain images, embodied in legends, religious buildings, topography of cities, etc. The image of the cathedral of Basil the Blessed, which is dominant in the Red Square in Moscow, was designed by overlaying images of the Orthodox Church and the main Kul-Sharif mosque from the city of Kazan, captured by Ivan the Terrible. In this way the tsar demonstrated the overcome of Islam. So did Mehmed the Conqueror – he transformed the church of Sophia of Constantinople into a mosque. Consequently, such hierotropic behaviour is paradigmatic. Resurrection monastery in Moscow was built by Patriarch Nikon as a topographical copy of Jerusalem and was called the New Jerusalem. Due to this project, Patriarch Nikon was subjected to devastating criticism coming from other patriarchs, because they were opposed to such a literal interpretation of a sacred space, and from the side of opponents of Patriarch Nikon – old-believers. The Old Believers considered the New Solomonian monastery on the island to be the New Jerusalem in the middle of the White Sea, because they interpreted the New Jerusalem as the kingdom of the faithful, but not architectural, incarnation on earth. They condemned Emperor Peter the Great for constructing the city of St. Petersburg as a realization of the Paradise. Moreover, the community believed Patriarch Nikon and Emperor Peter to be antichrists. As opposed to the imperious architectural ambitions was the legendary of the city of Kitezh, which supposedly drowned into Lake Svitloyar in order to be saved over the time of Mongol-Tatar invasion. Only true believers can hear the bells of its numerous churches from under the water. This invisible city was opposed to the Resurrection Monastery of Nikon and Saint Petersburg as a heavenly place. However, we note that the Russian vision of the world was syncretic. The name of Svitloyar Lake originates from the cult of the pagan god Yaril, whose rituals are associated with spring equinox (pagan Maslyana). The pagan rituals of Yaril, located directly on the Svitloyar riverfront were characterized by irresistible sexuality, which corresponded to the rebirth and fertility. After Christianization, the sacred lake changed its religious priorities and became a space of sacred Temple-City, which is going to reveal its secrets in the future. Lots of Russian writers, artists and playwrights were inspired by the image of Kitezh. It was interpreted as a happy kingdom, which would surely appear when Kitezh was materialized. Moreover, the poets-symbolists of the revolutionary era identified Kitezh with the image of a bright communist future. Thus, the leading intent of the Russian vision was the path of looking for a fairytale Kingdom incarnated on the earth. Consequently, immaturity and infantilism are the leading characteristics of the so-called “Russian soul”, which is reflected in the national vision of the world.
міфологема, сакральний простір, храм, картина світу, Росія, стаття, image of the world, mythologeme, Russia, sacred space, temple
Демчук Р. В. Модифікація міфологеми "Храму-Града" у російській картині світу / Р. В. Демчук // Вісник Маріупольського державного університету. Серія: Філософія, культурологія, соціологія / гол. ред. К. В. Балабанов. - Маріуполь : МДУ, 2017. - Вип. 13. - С. 36-45.