Знаки на кераміці доби пізньої бронзи

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Отрощенко, Віталій
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Проаналізовано розмаїту систему декорування глиняних виробів доби пізньої бронзи. Особливу увагу приділено знакам, виявленим на кераміці досліджуваного періоду. Науковці висловлюють думку про те, що вони є проявом давньої писемності, у зв’язку з чим намагаються з’ясувати їх зміст. Подано узагальнену оцінку праць, що з’явилися впродовж понадстолітнього періоду дослідження декору
The article deals with the history of studying the sign system of the population of the Zrubna culture and the neighbouring cultures of the Late Bronze Age (18th-13th centuries BC) from the first finds at the beginning of the 20th century and attempts to interpret them before the creation of the classification of marks during the last quarter of the century. In the end, Olena Zakharova, having studied 1050 signs from 308 artefacts, concluded about semasiography - a graphical semiotic system that reflects the initial degree of writing. Andriy Biletsky proposed the term «graffiti» for the signs of the Zrubna community, but strongly denied the opportunity to read them. Based on the studied sources, we can assume the existence of an ideographic stage of the development of a sign system and speak of «writing» (graffiti, Schriftzeichen), which have not evolved into phonetic writing in the population of the Zrubna community. The visual-figurative marks, certified by the researchers of the signs, makes it possible to cautiously approach the interpretation of individual iconic compositions, in particular, the multifigure. The possibility of this approach to the interpretation of signs was not denied by Andriy Biletsky. A noticeable variety in the details and combinations of elements of geometric decoration requires an individual approach to each composition. Exploring the origin of the sign system should consider the potential of local traditions that come from the Eneolithic community Cucuteni-Trypillya and pastoral communities of Bronze Age of the Great Steppe. It is impossible to exclude the perception of individual signs from the outside, from the centers of early civilizations that already had writing. A comparative characteristic of sign systems of two cultures of the Zrubna community (Pokrovs’koMosolovs’ka and Berezhnivsko-Mayivs’ka) was carried out and the local specificity of each of them was revealed. Observed increase in the concentration of pottery with signs in the areas of the mining and metallurgical centres of the named cultures – in the Kargalinsky area at the middle flow of the Ural river and in Donetsk regions. There is a link between the distribution of artifacts with signs to economically developed regions of the «zrubny» world. Approaches to the understanding of individual sign series, as the phases of the calendar cycle, are developed. These are so-called cyclic compositions. The pictographic character of the symbols of this group and the transparent symbolism of others give an opportunity to interpret individual iconic compositions, which contain mythological and epic subjects. Tension to this subject is a hallmark of the research of the 21st century, where the story of the victory of Indra (right-hand swastika, bull, horse) over the serpent Vritra (stranded meander or zigzag) is interpreted. A similar plot, made in a naturalistic manner, appears with numerous modifications on the vignette of the Book of the Dead from the time of the New Kingdom in Egypt (1550–1079 /1969 BC), where the body of Apap's snake shreds a cat as the embodiment of the Sun god Ra. Pictographic compositions with variations of the images of the chariots of the Late Bronze period allow us to recognize the chariot scenes in the ranks of the sings. This theme is complemented by the lines of signs on ceramic vessels, interpreted as burial tuples, which lead to the critically acclaimed Crete-Mycenaean fine art tradition. The pictographic replicas of a well-known scenes of young boy's exercises with bull on the frescoes of the Minos Palace on Crete, marked on artifacts from Central and Eastern Europe, are forced to turn to this topic. Also symbolic friezes on the vessels point to the effect of the animation by accelerating rotation of the sign series. The main task in the study of sign systems is the thorough collection of artifacts with signs, the publication of the cadastre of signs of the Late Bronze Age. Such a compilation will open new opportunities for clarifying the classifications of signs on the one hand and new interpretations of sign compositions on the other.
археологічна керамологія, глиняні вироби, доба пізньої бронзи, зрубна спільнота, знаки, graffiti, епічні сюжети, орнамент, композиція, писемність, стаття, archaeological сeramology, pottery, Late Bronze Age, Zrubna community, signs, epic scenes, ornament, composition, writing
Отрощенко В. В. Знаки на кераміці доби пізньої бронзи / Віталій Отрощенко // Археологічна Керамологія. - 2019. - № 1 (1). - С. 53-77.